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Digital watermarking is the enabling technology to prove ownership on copyrighted material, detect originators of illegally made copies, monitor the usage of the copyrighted multimedia data, and analyze the spread spectrum of the data over networks and servers. Most watermarking methods for images and video can be viewed as a communications problem in which(More)
Artificial Searching Swarm Algorithm (ASSA) is a novel optimization algorithm. This paper presents the comparison results on the performance of the ASSA for solving constrained optimization problems. The penalty function method and non-parameter penalty method are applied to a set of constrained problem. The simulation results show that ASSA is an efficient(More)
Recently, with the development of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many new routing protocols have been designed for WSNs. Routing protocols in WSNs, however, might differ depending on the application and network architecture. Furthermore, WSNs are exposed to numerous routing security threats. Therefore, it is headachy for us to choose secure routing(More)
New generation wireless sensor networks are demanding in in-time updating. Traditional trust evaluation is based entities and needs lengthy time to establish. The data security would be neglected in entity-based sensor networks. False data is another problem because it is hard to be filtered in these entity-based trust mechanisms. The propagation of false(More)
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