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1. In the stick insect, proprioceptive information from the middle leg is used to define the target for the swing movement of the adjacent rear leg ("targeting behavior"). To investigate the underlying neural circuits, intracellular recordings were made in the ganglion controlling the rear leg, the metathoracic ganglion, while systematically moving the(More)
The defensive spray of the bombardier beetle Stenaptinus insignis is ejected in quick pulses (at about 500 pulses per second) rather than as a continuous stream. The pulsation may be a consequence of intermittency in the explosive chemical process that generates the spray. The ejection system of the beetle shows basic similarity to the pulse jet propulsion(More)
The locomotor system of slowly walking insects is well suited for coping with highly irregular terrain and therefore might represent a paragon for an artificial six-legged walking machine. Our investigations of the stick insect Carausius morosus indicate that these animals gain their adaptivity and flexibility mainly from the extremely decentralized(More)
A simulated network for controlling a six-legged, insect-like walking system is proposed. The network contains internal recurrent connections, but important recurrent connections utilize the loop through the environment. This approach leads to a subnet for controlling the three joints of a leg during its swing which is arguably the simplest possible(More)
Bombardier beetles (Brachinus spp.) offered to orb-weaving spiders are either captured or lost, depending on the attack strategy of the spider. Nephila clavipes grasps a beetle directly and attempts to bite it outright, but is repelled by the beetle's defensive spray. As the spider recovers from the spray, the beetle makes its escape from the web. Argiope(More)
Analysis the characteristics of meter digital structure, considering the complexity of the meter digital images background, combines dynamic threshold and global threshold binary image on instrument digital image pre-processing. Locating the digital on the instrument, eliminated pattern noise by opening operation and removed small adhesions between the(More)
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