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Glutamate-induced excito-neurotoxicity likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial clearance of dying neurons and associated debris is essential to maintain healthy neural networks in the central nervous system. In fact, the functions of microglia are regulated by various signaling molecules that are(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the increasing trends of hypospadias and identify some of the perinatal risk factors that might be involved in Chinese newborns. METHODS The records from the neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed during a 10-year period. A case-control study was performed to compare the intrauterine growth status of the infants. Logistic(More)
We have shown previously, that the most neurotoxic factor from activated microglia is glutamate that is produced by glutaminase utilizing extracellular glutamine as a substrate. Drugs that inhibit glutaminase or gap junction through which the glutamate is released were effective in reducing neurotoxic activity of microglia. In this study, to elucidate(More)
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative disease. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on glial cells are responsible for the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate in the central nervous system which may contribute to the prevention of excitotoxic neurodegeneration. However, the differential EAAT expression(More)
Microglia are intrinsic immune cells in the central nervous system and play key roles in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system disorders. Microglia have been shown to attack damaged neurons by secreting a variety of neurotoxic factors including inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and glutamate. On the other hand, they can produce(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Despite a variety of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulation drugs including interferon-beta are effective to reduce relapse risk, most patients have progressive neurological deterioration due to axonal degeneration. Accumulation of(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate released by activated microglia induces excitotoxic neuronal death, which likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Although both blockade of glutamate receptors and inhibition of microglial activation are the therapeutic(More)
Glutamate released by activated microglia induces excito-neurotoxicity and may contribute to neurodegeneration in numerous neurological diseases including ischemia, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. We observed that the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) or the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) decreased(More)
OBJECTIVES The role of autophagy is still a controversy in cancer development. In our previous study, we confirmed that decrease of autophagy activity promotes malignant progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). However, the role of autophagy-related protein, Beclin1, has not well been documented in TSCC. In this study, we aim to elucidate the(More)
Neuroblastoma is the most common and deadly solid tumor in children, and there is currently no effective treatment available for neuroblastoma patients. The repressor element-1 silencing transcription (REST) factor has been found to play important roles in the regulation of neural differentiation and tumorigenesis. Recently, a REST signature consisting of(More)