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—Video applications such as video-on-demand systems in general have bandwidth and delay constraints. Such QoS requirements can no longer be guaranteed when video is transmitted with the traditional shortest-path routing over a bandwidth-limited network such as the Internet. In this paper, we propose multipath routing algorithms for video unicast so as to(More)
— In the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN using infrastructure mode, all users share the same channel and all packets are forwarded by an access point (AP). As a result, as the number of users in the cell increases, the throughput for each user degrades substantially. If there are users communicating with each other within the cell (as in conferencing(More)
—In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to deliver multimedia services over wireless ad hoc networks. Due to the existence of hidden terminal and absence of central control, the medium access control protocol as used in the ad hoc networks may lead to channel capture, where some flows monopolize the channel while others suffer from(More)
— Wireless networks have been widely deployed in recent years to provide high-speed Internet access to mobile users. In traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs, all users directly connect to an access point (AP) and all packets are forwarded by the AP. As a result, the coverage and capacity of the network is limited. If ad hoc mode is adopted in both the AP(More)
— In wireless LAN (WLAN), the access point (AP) is connected to the Internet to provide network service to mobile users. Such system has limited coverage. To overcome it, a number of APs may form a wireless mesh and packets are forwarded from one AP to another by means of ad hoc connections. In this way, WLAN coverage can be cost-effectively extended to(More)
In this paper, a novel blind watermarking scheme based on the back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) for image is presented. First, the convolutional codes encoding is used to refine the watermark for increasing robustness of the scheme. BPNN is developed to memorize the relationships between the wavelet selected samples and a processed chaotic sequence.(More)
—The delivery of quality video service often requires high bandwidth with low delay or cost in network transmission. Current routing protocols such as those used in the Internet are mainly based on the single-path approach (e.g., the shortest-path routing). This approach cannot meet the end-to-end bandwidth requirement when the video is streamed over(More)
Biliary tract cancers encompass gallbladder carcinoma, and intrahepatic, perihilar and distal cholangiocarcinoma. Upregulated serum CYFRA 21-1 has been reported in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The present study aimed to explore the clinical significance of serum CYFRA 21-1 in all biliary tract cancer subtypes. Serum CYFRA 21-1, carbohydrate antigen 19-9(More)
— In recent years, wireless public networks have been widely deployed to provide high-speed Internet access to mobile users. Due to the dynamic and uneven distribution of user requests , some access points (the so-called " hot-spots ") may be congested by many users. In order to alleviate such congestion, we introduce an ad hoc relaying wireless LAN(More)
— A home network is a residential local area network , in which users are networking their PCs, laptops or wireless multimedia appliances to use a single residential access point (AP) or gateway connecting to the Internet. As network-capable appliances continue to gain momentum in the home, home networks are becoming increasingly popular. The problem(More)