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An important aspect of synapse development is the clustering of neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Although MuSK is required for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that in muscle cells, MuSK interacts with Dishevelled (Dvl), a(More)
Allopolyploidy is an important speciation mechanism and is ubiquitous among plants. Brassica napus is a model system for studying the consequences of hybridization and polyploidization on allopolyploid genome. In this research, two sets of plant materials were used to investigate the transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in the early stages of allopolyploid(More)
The developing next generation (4G) mobile communication system will offer us great convenience and huge opportunities of service creation with numerous security threats. As a critical security mechanism, user authentication and key agreement (AKA) schemes have received considerable attentions in recent years. In this paper, a AKA scheme (SPAKA) based on(More)
Understanding the cell type-specific molecular mechanisms by which distinct signaling pathways combinatorially control proliferation during organogenesis is a central issue in development and disease. Here, we report that the bicoid-related transcription factor Pitx2 is rapidly induced by the Wnt/Dvl/beta-catenin pathway and is required for effective(More)
Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical beta-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which coordinates cell polarity within a sheet of cells and also directs convergent extension cell (CE) movements that produce narrowing and elongation of(More)
Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were(More)
Embryo development represents a crucial developmental period in the life cycle of flowering plants. To gain insights into the genetic programs that control embryo development in Brassica rapa L., RNA sequencing technology was used to perform transcriptome profiling analysis of B. rapa developing embryos. The results generated 42,906,229 sequence reads(More)
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is conserved throughout evolution, but it mediates distinct developmental processes. In Drosophila, members of the PCP pathway localize in a polarized fashion to specify the cellular polarity within the plane of the epithelium, perpendicular to the apicobasal axis of the cell. In Xenopus and zebrafish, several homologs(More)
The murine dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Dishevelled, a member of the highly conserved Wingless/Wnt developmental pathway. Dvl2-deficient mice were produced to determine the role of Dvl2 in mammalian development. Mice containing null mutations in Dvl2 present with 50% lethality in both inbred 129S6 and in a(More)
Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has central roles in development and diseases, and is initiated by the action of the frizzled (Fz) receptor, its coreceptor LDL receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), and the cytoplasmic dishevelled (Dvl) protein. The functional relationships among Fz, Lrp6 and Dvl have long been enigmatic. We demonstrated previously that(More)