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Many cell phenomena involve major morphological changes, particularly in mitosis and the process of cell migration. For cells or neuronal growth cones to migrate, they must extend the leading edge of the plasma membrane as a lamellipodium or filopodium. During extension of filopodia, membrane must move across the surface creating shear and flow.(More)
Stimulated secretion in endocrine cells and neuronal synapses causes a rise in endocytosis rates to recover the added membrane. The endocytic process involves the mechanical deformation of the membrane to produce an invagination. Studies of osmotic swelling effects on endocytosis indicate that the increased surface tension is tightly correlated to a(More)
Development of the nervous system requires that neuronal growth cones, in coordination with growing axons, migrate along precise paths defined by specific extracellular matrix cues until they encounter their targets. Laminin promotes growth cone migration through receptors such as the integrins, but the underlying physical mechanism is poorly understood. We(More)
The small GTPase racE is essential for cytokinesis in Dictyostelium. We found that this requirement is restricted to cells grown in suspension. When attached to a substrate, racE null cells form an actomyosin contractile ring and complete cytokinesis normally. Nonetheless, racE null cells fail completely in cytokinesis when in suspension. To understand this(More)
BACKGROUND Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NPCs are considered valuable for the cell therapy of injuries in the central nervous system (CNS). However, when NPCs are transplanted into the adult mammalian spinal cord, they mostly differentiate into glial lineage. The same results have been(More)
The fate of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is determined by many extracellular cues. Among them, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family are found to promote the neuronal differentiation of NPCs. Akt activation has been indicated to be responsible for the insulin/IGF-I induced neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanism by which(More)
Spinal cord crushed injury is clinically common. Promoting targeted neural regeneration at the crushed site of spinal cord could be important for the repair. It has been demonstrated in our previous work that native human BDNF fused with a collagen-binding domain (CBD-BDNF) can bind to collagen specifically to exert the neurotrophic effect on promoting(More)
The human OCT4 gene can generate at least three transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1) and four protein isoforms (OCT4A, OCT4B-190, OCT4B-265, and OCT4B-164) by alternative splicing and alternative translation initiation. OCT4A is a transcription factor responsible for the pluripotency properties of embryonic stem (ES) cells. While OCT4B cannot sustain ES(More)
The emerging concept is that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a central role in controlling stem cell self-renewal and fate determination by regulating the expression of stem cell regulators. miR-125b, one of neuronal miRNAs, recently was found to be necessary for neural differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). However, the other specific biological(More)