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Accumulating anatomical, functional, and behavioral studies reveal that the cerebellum is involved in the regulation of various visceral functions including feeding control. Cerebellar lesions may induce alterations in feeding behavior and decreases in body weight. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the cerebellar regulation of food intake is still(More)
Mercury (Hg) pollution is usually regarded as an environmental stress in reducing microbial diversity and altering bacterial community structure. However, these results were based on relatively short-term studies, which might obscure the real response of microbial species to Hg contamination. Here, we analysed the bacterial abundance and community(More)
Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large(More)
The cerebellum has been considered only as a classical subcortical center for motor control. However, accumulating experimental and clinical evidences have revealed that the cerebellum also plays an important role in cognition, for instance, in learning and memory, as well as in emotional behavior and in nonsomatic activities, such as visceral and(More)
The absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy. While the function of the central orexinergic system in sleep regulation has been well studied, the role of orexin in motor control is largely unknown. Here, we show that orexin-A acts via OX(1) and OX(2) receptors to directly depolarize neurons in the rat lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), a subcortical(More)
Orexins are newfound hypothalamic neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness cycle, nociception, addiction, emotions, as well as narcolepsy. However, little is known about roles of orexins in motor control. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of orexins on neuronal activity in the(More)
Cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been showed to be an important mediator of neuroimmune responses. However, effects of IL-6 in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite complex and diverse, and mechanisms through which IL-6 influences neuronal functions are primarily unknown. In the present study, we explored protective effect of IL-6 that was chronically(More)
The glycemia-sensitive neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) have traditionally been implicated in feeding regulation. Some studies reported that the neuronal activity of the VMN could be modulated by inputs from the gastric vagal afferent, and the cerebellum might participate in regulating non-somatic visceral activities via the(More)
The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus. However, these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system. It is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), belonging to the neurotrophic family of growth factors, has a widespread distribution in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In central motor structures including the motor cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, BDNF exerts both neurotrophic and direct electrophysiological effects via a(More)