Jian-jian Hu

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The rate and degree of tolerance development of morphine, normorphine and methadone were assessed in vitro on the guinea-pig ileum. After the half-maximal concentration to inhibit electrically induced contractions (IC50) for each compound was determined, tolerance to a fixed concentration representing 0.5, 1 or 2 times its IC50 was induced by incubation at(More)
Mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone from Mangifera indica, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects and mechanisms of mangiferin on liver injury remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the protective effects and mechanisms of mangiferin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute liver(More)
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of subanalgesic doses of beta- and leucine-endorphin in mice 15 min before subcutaneous morphine injection, significantly enhanced the analgesic effects of the morphine as measured by the tail-flick assay. A similar effect was seen with levorphanol analgesia but not enhancement of leucine- or(More)
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