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Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces dramatic axon growth from responsive embryonic peripheral neurons. However, the roles of the various NGF-triggered signaling cascades in determining specific axon morphological features remain unknown. Here, we transfected activated and inhibitory mutants of Trk effectors into sensory neurons lacking the proapoptotic(More)
Robust axon regeneration occurs after peripheral nerve injury through coordinated activation of a genetic program and local intracellular signaling cascades. Although regeneration-associated genes are being identified with increasing frequency, most aspects of regeneration-associated intracellular signaling remain poorly understood. Two independent studies(More)
BACKGROUND Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein of unknown function. SAA is mostly expressed in the liver, but also in other tissues including the intestinal epithelium. SAA reportedly has anti-bacterial effects, and because inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from a breakdown in homeostatic interactions between intestinal epithelia and(More)
Recent data suggest that dietary fat promotes intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the gut microflora, which might contribute to various inflammatory disorders. The mechanism of fat-induced LPS absorption is unclear, however. Intestinal-epithelial cells can internalize LPS from the apical surface and transport LPS to the Golgi. The Golgi(More)
We have established functions of the stimulus-dependent MAPKs, ERK1/2 and ERK5, in DRG, motor neuron, and Schwann cell development. Surprisingly, many aspects of early DRG and motor neuron development were found to be ERK1/2 independent, and Erk5 deletion had no obvious effect on embryonic PNS. In contrast, Erk1/2 deletion in developing neural crest(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly prevailing as a serious global health problem. Current treatments for T2DM may cause side effects, thus highlighting the need for newer and safer therapies. We tested the hypothesis that dietary capsaicin regulates glucose homeostasis through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(More)
We have defined functions of MEK in regulating gliogenesis in developing cerebral cortex using loss- and gain-of-function mouse genetics. Radial progenitors deficient in both Mek1 and Mek2 fail to transition to the gliogenic mode in late embryogenesis, and astrocyte and oligodendroglial precursors fail to appear. In exploring mechanisms, we found that the(More)
Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAF(Nav1.8) mice). We found(More)
To define the role of the Raf serine/threonine kinases in nervous system development, we conditionally targeted B-Raf and C-Raf, two of the three known mammalian Raf homologs, using a mouse line expressing Cre recombinase driven by a nestin promoter. Targeting of B-Raf, but not C-Raf, markedly attenuated baseline phosphorylation of Erk in neural tissues and(More)