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The clinical use of morphine to reduce pain is limited because of its drug tolerance, dependence and addiction. In the present study, the tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) developed morphine tolerance and chronic morphine dependence by morphine injections with increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg body weight for 7 days). Meanwhile, the naloxone(More)
In this paper, one method was introduced, which was a combination of the cue-related morphine addiction model and a technique for obtaining chronic extracellular recordings of single unit in freely moving rats. With the combination and improvement of this technique, we have successfully applied this new method to study the neuronal activity of the(More)
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