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We present the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD), a new reading comprehension dataset consisting of 100,000+ questions posed by crowdworkers on a set of Wikipedia articles, where the answer to each question is a segment of text from the corresponding reading passage. We analyze the dataset to understand the types of reasoning required to answer(More)
The exocyst is an octameric protein complex implicated in the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane before fusion. The function of individual exocyst components and the mechanism by which this tethering complex is targeted to sites of secretion are not clear. In this study, we report that the exocyst subunit Exo70 functions in(More)
Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN), originally manufactured by Alfred Nobel, has been used to treat angina and heart failure for over 130 years. However, the molecular mechanism of GTN biotransformation has remained a mystery and it is not well understood why "tolerance" (i.e., loss of clinical efficacy) manifests over time. Here we purify a nitrate(More)
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are central to most biological processes. Although efforts have been devoted to the development of methodology for predicting PPIs and protein interaction networks, the application of most existing methods is limited because they need information about protein homology or the interaction marks of the protein partners. In(More)
The Protein Information Resource (PIR) is an integrated public resource of protein informatics that supports genomic and proteomic research and scientific discovery. PIR maintains the Protein Sequence Database (PSD), an annotated protein database containing over 283 000 sequences covering the entire taxonomic range. Family classification is used for(More)
Primary cilia are microtubule-based membrane projections located at the surface of many cells. Defects in primary cilia formation have been implicated in a number of genetic disorders, such as Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and Polycystic Kidney Disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that polarized vesicular transport involving Rab8 and its guanine(More)
PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological properties of small molecules hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem BioAssay database currently contains biological test results for more than 700 000 compounds. The goal of PubChem is to make this information easily accessible to biomedical researchers.(More)
The Protein Information Resource (PIR) serves as an integrated public resource of functional annotation of protein data to support genomic/proteomic research and scientific discovery. The PIR, in collaboration with the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and the Japan International Protein Information Database (JIPID), produces the(More)
Traditional patch-based sparse representation modeling of natural images usually suffer from two problems. First, it has to solve a large-scale optimization problem with high computational complexity in dictionary learning. Second, each patch is considered independently in dictionary learning and sparse coding, which ignores the relationship among patches,(More)