Learn More
SUMMARY Coronatine is an important virulence factor produced by several pathovars of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The structure of coronatine is similar to that of a class of plant hormones called jasmonates (JAs). An important step in JA signaling is the SCF(COI1) E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent degradation of JAZ repressor proteins. We have(More)
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei produces and secretes profuse quantities of enzymes that act synergistically to degrade cellulase and related biomass components. We partially sequenced over 5100 random T. reesei cDNA clones. Among the sequences whose predicted gene products had significant similarity to known proteins, 12 were identified that(More)
Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial source of cellulases and hemicellulases used to depolymerize biomass to simple sugars that are converted to chemical intermediates and biofuels, such as ethanol. We assembled 89 scaffolds (sets of ordered and oriented contigs) to generate 34 Mbp of nearly contiguous T. reesei genome sequence comprising 9,129(More)
In this paper we propose an approach to holistic scene understanding that reasons jointly about regions, location, class and spatial extent of objects, presence of a class in the image, as well as the scene type. Learning and inference in our model are efficient as we reason at the segment level, and introduce auxiliary variables that allow us to decompose(More)
Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important(More)
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic.(More)
Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals(More)
Activity of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) produced by transfected cells is rapidly down-regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress independent of transcriptional regulation. This phenomenon was observed in a wide range of cell types triggered by various ER stress inducers. The magnitude of the decrease in SEAP was proportional to the extent of ER(More)
Ralstonia solanacearum, a soilborne plant pathogen of considerable economic importance, invades host plant roots from the soil. Qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays revealed that this bacterium is specifically attracted to diverse amino acids and organic acids, and especially to root exudates from the host plant tomato. Exudates from rice, a(More)
Gap junctions, formed by members of the connexin (Cx) family, are intercellular channels allowing direct exchange of signaling molecules. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) is a widespread mechanism for homeostasis in organs. GJIC in the immune system is not yet fully understood. Although dendritic cells (DC) reportedly form(More)