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Local accumulation of the plant growth regulator auxin mediates pattern formation in Arabidopsis roots and influences outgrowth and development of lateral root- and shoot-derived primordia. However, it has remained unclear how auxin can simultaneously regulate patterning and organ outgrowth and how its distribution is stabilized in a primordium-specific(More)
Plants and some animals have a profound capacity to regenerate organs from adult tissues. Molecular mechanisms for regeneration have, however, been largely unexplored. Here we investigate a local regeneration response in Arabidopsis roots. Laser-induced wounding disrupts the flow of auxin-a cell-fate-instructive plant hormone-in root tips, and we(More)
The plant growth regulator auxin controls cell identity, cell division and cell expansion. Auxin efflux facilitators (PINs) are associated with auxin maxima in distal regions of both shoots and roots. Here we model diffusion and PIN-facilitated auxin transport in and across cells within a structured root layout. In our model, the stable accumulation of(More)
AN INCREASING NUMBER of integrated solutions involve the stacking of chips to reduce system size. You can find wire-bonded stacks of processors and memories in cell phones, PDAs, and flash cards. But is physical size of the system the only benefit of stacking chips? Does this minia-turization provide potential performance benefits? Until recently, practical(More)
Privacy becomes a more and more serious concern in applications involving microdata. Recently, efficient anonymization has attracted much research work. Most of the previous methods use global recoding, which maps the domains of the quasi-identifier attributes to generalized or changed values. However, global recoding may not always achieve effective(More)
Vesicle trafficking is essential for the generation of asymmetries, which are central to multicellular development. Core components of the vesicle transport machinery, such as ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, have been studied primarily at the single-cell level. Here, we analyze developmental functions of the ARF1 subclass of the Arabidopsis thaliana(More)
Soluble oligomers of amyloid beta (Abeta) play a role in the memory impairment characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Acting as pathogenic ligands, Abeta oligomers bind to particular synapses and perturb their function, morphology, and maintenance. Events that occur shortly after oligomer binding have been investigated here in live hippocampal neurons by(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast to the intense attention devoted to research on intracellular sterol trafficking in animal cells, knowledge about sterol transport in plant cells remains limited, and virtually nothing is known about plant endocytic sterol trafficking. Similar to animals, biosynthetic sterol transport occurs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the(More)
Kainate receptors signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic pathways. The high-affinity subunits, GluK4 and GluK5, are unique among the five receptor subunits, as they do not form homomeric receptors but modify the properties of heteromeric assemblies. Disruption of the Grik4 gene locus resulted in a significant reduction in synaptic kainate receptor(More)