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The traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria radix has been used for thousands of years, mainly for the treatment of inflammatory conditions including hepatitis. The major active constituent, wogonin (WG), isolated from S. radix has attracted increasing scientific attention in recent years due to its potent biological activities. However, pharmacologic(More)
Actin dynamics provide an important mechanism for the modification of synaptic plasticity, which is regulated by the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin. However, the role of cofilin regulated actin dynamics in memory extinction process is still unclear. Here, we observed that extinction of conditioned taste aversive (CTA) memory led to temporally(More)
Huperzine A is a reversible and selective cholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. To identify which cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes are involved in the metabolism of Huperzine A, an in vitro study was performed with rat liver microsomes and immunoinhibition and chemical inhibition methods. Huperzine A metabolism was(More)
Consolidated memory can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, which is referred to as reconsolidation, and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unexplored. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. We have recently observed that BDNF(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), play a critical role in memory extinction. However, the detailed role of BDNF in memory extinction on the basis of neural circuit has not been fully understood. Here, we aim to investigate the role of BDNF signaling circuit in mediating conditioned taste(More)
AIM To make sure the reliability of phototoxic tests in vitro by comparing the phototoxic potential of 4 fluoroquinolones (FQ). METHODS Lomefloxacin (LFLX), sparfloxacin (SPFX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and norfloxacin (NFLX) were tested by Wistar rat phototoxic test and Balb/c mouse phototoxic test in vivo, and Chinese hamster V79 cell micronucleus test and(More)
AIM To observe the acute effects of huperzine A and tacrine on rat liver. METHODS Changes of liver coefficient, serum biochemistry, and histopathology were detected after single dose. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by determining extracellular and intracellular amount of lactate dehydrogenase in cultured hepatocytes. RESULTS Both huperzine A and(More)
AIM To compare two methods of measuring DNA damage induced by photogenotoxicity of fluoroquinolones (FQ). METHODS Lomefloxacin (LFLX), sparfloxacin (SPFX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and levofloxacin (LELX) were tested by comet assay and photodynamic DNA strand breaking activity under the different conditions of UVA irradiation. RESULTS In comet assay,(More)
AIM To predict possible drug interaction and assure safety medication of huperzine A (HupA). METHODS The effects of HupA on activities and expressions of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) were examined. Liver microsomes and total mRNA were prepared from rats treated orally with 0, 0.1 (pharmacological dose), 1, or 2 mg/kg huperzine A for 2 weeks. Phenobarbital,(More)
A series of novel bis(L-amino acid) ester prodrugs of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl] adenine (PMEA) was synthesized and their anti-HBV activity was evaluated in HepG 2 2.2.15 cells. Compounds 11, 12, 21, 22, 26, and 27 demonstrated more potent anti-HBV activity and higher selective index (SI) than adefovir dipivoxil, which was used as a positive control.(More)