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iv iv Expanding the Measure of Wealth 4.1 The simple economics of win-win subsidy reform 42 4.2 Price reform problems in transition economies 47 4.3 Energy in Russia: what lies ahead? 50 4.4 China: subsidy reform in the coal sector 50 4.5 Electricity subsidies 51 4.6 Removing pesticide subsidies in Bangladesh 54 4.7 Removing pesticide subsidies in Indonesia(More)
Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an endogenous peptide ligand of GPR103 from rat brains. The purified peptide was found to be the 43-residue RF-amide peptide QRFP. We also describe two mouse homologues of human GPR103, termed mouse GPR103A and GPR103B. QRFP binds and activates the human GPR103, as well as mouse GPR103A and GPR103B, with(More)
  • Jian Xie, Sidney Saltzman, S. Saltzman
  • 2000
Environmental pollution is now a serious problem in many developing countries. One approach to combat the problem is to implement various pollution control policies. However , due to a lack of adequate quantitative models, the economic impacts and effectiveness of many pollution control policies are still unknown. This article uses the computable(More)
Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2α acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo(More)
Klotho is a membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney that exerts some antiageing effects. Ageing is associated with an increased risk of heart failure; whether Klotho is cardioprotective is unknown. Here we show that Klotho-deficient mice have no baseline cardiac abnormalities but develop exaggerated pathological cardiac hypertrophy and(More)
Aiming at the phenomenon of slow convergence rate and low accuracy of bat algorithm, a novel bat algorithm based on differential operator and Lévy flights trajectory is proposed. In this paper, a differential operator is introduced to accelerate the convergence speed of proposed algorithm, which is similar to mutation strategy "DE/best/2" in differential(More)
PURPOSE Microphthalmia is a relatively common ocular malformation. Molecular mechanisms that lead to this dire condition are largely unknown. Msx genes have been shown to be expressed in the developing eye. In the Msx1;Msx2, double mutant mouse, eye development arrests early in embryogenesis. To investigate possible functions of Msx2 in early ocular(More)