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PSD-95, DLG, ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-mediated protein interactions have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of glutamate receptor function at excitatory synapses. Recent studies demonstrating the rapid regulation of AMPA receptor function during synaptic plasticity have suggested that AMPA receptor interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although we demonstrated willed movement (WM) therapy can facilitate the patients actively participating in the physical activities by cognitive and perceptual stimulation in our previous study, the molecular mechanisms of the willed movement on the patients remains unclear. We initially established the model of WM intervention for(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency of SCA1 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 1), SCA2, SCA3/MJD (spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease), SCA6, SCA7, and DRPLA (dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy) CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions [(CAG)n] among persons diagnosed with hereditary SCA from Chinese families. PATIENTS AND METHODS Spinocerebellar(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ginsenoside-Rd is a selective competitive Ca2+ receptor antagonist. A phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of ginsenoside-Rd in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS A total of 199 patients were randomized equally to receive a 14-day(More)
Fibrinogen plays an important role in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. This study investigated the association between common variants in the fibrinogen gene and the risk of developing sporadic cerebral hemorrhage (CH). We performed genotyping analyses for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the fibrinogen gene in a(More)
Accumulating evidence from both genetic and clinico-pharmacological studies suggests that D-serine, an endogenous coagonist to the NMDA subtype glutamate receptor, may be implicated in schizophrenia (SZ). Although an association of genes for D-serine degradation, such as D-amino acid oxidase and G72, has been reported, a role for D-serine in SZ has been(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE  Ginsenoside-Rd is a receptor-operated calcium channel antagonist and has shown promise as a neuroprotectant in our phase II study. As an extended work, we sought to confirm its efficacy and safety of Ginsenoside-Rd in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial(More)
The hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus play a crucial role in the promotion of arousal. Adenosine, an endogenous sleep-promoting factor, modulates both neuronal excitatory and synaptic transmission in the CNS. In this study, the involvement of endogenous adenosine in the regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission to(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol exposure (CEE) and withdrawal on corticostriatal plasticity in rats. METHODS We established an animal model of alcoholism using the method of Turchan et al. (1999). A synaptic model of long-term memory (long-term depression, LTD) was used as an index and the striatum,(More)
Orexins, novel excitatory neuropeptides from the lateral hypothalamus, have been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of orexin A on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of freshly dissociated neurons from layers V and VI in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Changes in(More)