Cytoplasm contains important metabolism reaction organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplast (in plant). In particular, mitochondria contains special DNA information which can be passed to offsprings through maternal gametes, and has been confirmed to play a pivotal role in nuclear activities. Experimental evidences have documented the importance of… (More)
A vast amount of literature has confirmed the role of gene-environment (G×E) interaction in the etiology of complex human diseases. Traditional methods are predominantly focused on the analysis of interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and an environmental variable. Given that genes are the functional units, it is crucial to understand… (More)
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