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The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the(More)
Recently, it has been shown that carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA)-type random access algorithms can achieve the maximum possible throughput in ad hoc wireless networks. However, these algorithms assume an idealized continuous-time CSMA protocol where collisions can never occur. In addition, simulation results indicate that the delay performance of these(More)
There are pressing reasons for developing a better understanding of net primary production (NPP) in the world’s forests. These ecosystems play a large role in the world’s carbon budget, and their dynamics, which are likely to be responding to global changes in climate and atmospheric composition, have major economic implications and impacts on global(More)
TRAIL (also known as Apo-2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that rapidly induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines. The human receptor for TRAIL was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF-receptor family (designated death receptor-4, DR4) that contains a cytoplasmic "death domain" capable of engaging the(More)
To identify CAP3 and CAP4, components of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex, we utilized nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a recently developed technique to sequence femtomole quantities of polyacrylamide gel-separated proteins. Interestingly, CAP4 encodes a novel 55 kDa protein, designated FLICE, which has homology to both FADD(More)
TRAIL, also called Apo2L, is a cytotoxic protein that induces apoptosis of many transformed cell lines but not of normal tissues, even though its death domain-containing receptor, DR4, is expressed on both cell types. An antagonist decoy receptor (designated as TRID for TRAIL receptor without an intracellular domain) that may explain the resistant phenotype(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway leads to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in mammals and is similar to the Toll pathway in Drosophila: the IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) is homologous to Pelle. Two additional proximal mediators were identified that are required for IL-1R-induced NF-kappaB activation: IRAK-2, a Pelle family(More)
DR3 is a death domain-containing receptor that is upregulated during T cell activation and whose overexpression induces apoptosis and NF-kappaB activation in cell lines. Here we show that an endothelial cell-derived TNF-like factor, TL1A, is a ligand for DR3 and decoy receptor TR6/DcR3 and that its expression is inducible by TNF and IL-1alpha. TL1A induces(More)
We describe here a newly identified member of the human B7 family, designated B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3), that shares 20-27% amino acid identity with other B7 family members. B7-H3 mRNA is not detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although it is found in various normal tissues and in several tumor cell lines. Expression of B7-H3 protein, however, can(More)
Ced-4 and Apaf-1 belong to a major class of apoptosis regulators that contain caspase-recruitment (CARD) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains. Nod1, a protein with an NH2-terminal CARD-linked to a nucleotide-binding domain and a COOH-terminal segment with multiple leucine-rich repeats, was identified. Nod-1 was found to bind to multiple caspases(More)