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Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
How anthropogenic climate change will affect hydroclimate in the arid regions of southwestern North America has implications for the allocation of water resources and the course of regional development. Here we show that there is a broad consensus among climate models that this region will dry in the 21st century and that the transition to a more arid(More)
The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In(More)
Determining the extent of adaptive evolution at the genomic level is central to our understanding of molecular evolution. A suitable observation for this purpose would consist of polymorphic data on a large and unbiased collection of genes from two closely related species, each having a large and stable population. In this study, we sequenced 419 genes from(More)
The change in the zonal mean atmospheric circulation under global warming is studied in comparison with the response to El Niño forcing, by examining the model simulations conducted for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In contrast to the strengthening and contraction of the Hadley cell and the equatorward shift(More)
Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. They describe a signal by the power at each scale and position. Edges can be located very effectively in the wavelet transform domain. A spatially selective noise filtration technique based on the direct spatial correlation of the wavelet transform at(More)
As wireless devices and sensors are increasingly deployed on people, researchers have begun to focus on wireless body-area networks. Applications of wireless body sensor networks include healthcare, entertainment, and personal assistance, in which sensors collect physiological and activity data from people and their environments. In these body sensor(More)
There is an increasing demand for the runtime reconfiguration of distributed systems in response to changing environments and evolving requirements. Reconfiguration must be done in a safe and low-disruptive way. In this paper, we propose version consistency of distributed transactions as a safe criterion for dynamic reconfiguration. Version consistency(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenously expressed RNAs that regulate mRNAs post-transcriptionally. The class of miRNA genes, like other gene classes, should experience birth, death and persistence of its members. We carried out deep sequencing of miRNAs from three species of Drosophila, and obtained 107,000 sequences that map to no fewer than 300 loci(More)