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The somatomedin hypothesis proposed that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was a hepatically derived circulating mediator of growth hormone and is a crucial factor for postnatal growth and development. To reassess this hypothesis, we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to delete the igf1 gene exclusively in the liver. igf1 gene deletion in the(More)
The body growth of animals is regulated by growth hormone and IGF-I. The classical theory of this regulation is that most IGF-I in the blood originates in the liver and that body growth is controlled by the concentration of IGF-I in the blood. We have abolished IGF-I production in the livers of mice by using the Cre/loxP recombination system. These mice(More)
The premotor cortex of macaque monkeys is currently subdivided into at least six different subareas on the basis of structural, hodological and physiological criteria. To determine the degree of divergence/convergence of thalamocortical projections to mesial [supplementary motor area (SMA)-proper and pre-SMA] and lateral (PMd-c, PMd-r, PMv-c and PMv-r)(More)
Retinopathy of prematurity is a blinding disease, initiated by lack of retinal vascular growth after premature birth. We show that lack of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in knockout mice prevents normal retinal vascular growth, despite the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor, important to vessel development. In vitro, low levels of IGF-I(More)
The two subdivisions of the supplementary motor area (SMA), the pre-SMA (rostrally) and SMA-proper (caudally), exhibit distinct functional properties and clear differences with respect to their connectivity with the spinal cord, the thalamus, and other homolateral motor cortical areas. The goal of the present study was to establish in monkeys whether these(More)
Msx2-deficient mice exhibit progressive hair loss, starting at P14 and followed by successive cycles of wavelike regrowth and loss. During the hair cycle, Msx2 deficiency shortens anagen phase, but prolongs catagen and telogen. Msx2-deficient hair shafts are structurally abnormal. Molecular analyses suggest a Bmp4/Bmp2/Msx2/Foxn1 acidic hair keratin pathway(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is essential for cell growth, differentiation and postnatal development. A null mutation in igf-1 causes intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal lethality. The present study was designed to test the lower limit of igf-1 gene dosage that ensures survival and postnatal growth by using the Cre/loxP system. Mice with(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exercise (EX) improves the quality of life and increases the survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Because sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in the CHF state, it is possible that EX is beneficial in this disease due to a decrease in sympathetic outflow. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated arterial baroreflex function(More)
Anatomical knowledge of the structures to be targeted and of the circuitry involved is crucial in stereotactic functional neurosurgery. The present study was undertaken in the context of surgical treatment of motor disorders such as essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) to precisely determine the course and three-dimensional stereotactic(More)
Single injections with morphine can induce a state of acute opioid dependence in humans and animals, typically measured as precipitated withdrawal when an antagonist such as naloxone is administered 4-24 h after morphine. Repeated treatment with morphine results in a progressive shift in potency of naloxone to produce such acute withdrawal signs. The(More)