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—Transport connections set up in wireless ad hoc networks are plagued by problems such as high bit error rates, frequent route changes, and partitions. If we run transmission control protocol (TCP) over such connections, the throughput of the connection is observed to be extremely poor because TCP treats lost or delayed acknowledgments as congestion. In(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is high in developing countries. However, no national survey of chronic kidney disease has been done incorporating both estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in a developing country with the economic diversity of China. We aimed to measure the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in(More)
Individuals accepting an idea may intentionally or unintentionally impose influences in a certain neighborhood area, making other individuals within the area less likely or even impossible to accept other competing ideas. Depending on whether such influences strictly prohibit neighborhood individuals from accepting other ideas or not, we classify them into(More)
Endocytic vesicle formation is a complex process that couples sequential protein recruitment and lipid modifications with dramatic shape transformations of the plasma membrane. Although individual molecular players have been studied intensively, how they all fit into a coherent picture of endocytosis remains unclear. That is, how the proper temporal and(More)
A record from Wanxiang Cave, China, characterizes Asian Monsoon (AM) history over the past 1810 years. The summer monsoon correlates with solar variability, Northern Hemisphere and Chinese temperature, Alpine glacial retreat, and Chinese cultural changes. It was generally strong during Europe's Medieval Warm Period and weak during Europe's Little Ice Age,(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple(More)
In the paper, a three-level thresholding method for image segmentation is presented, based on probability partition, fuzzy partition and entropy theory. A new fuzzy entropy has been defined through probability analysis. The image is divided into three parts, namely, dark, gray and white part, whose member functions of the fuzzy region are Z-function and(More)
Sevoflurane administration impairs memory processes in both humans and animals. Increasing evidence suggests that enhancement of the phosphorylation state of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), as a result of acute administration of lithium chloride (LiCl), may enhance memory consolidation. The current experiments examined whether GSK-3β phosphorylation(More)
Transgenic overexpression of Cu(+2)/Zn(+2) superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) harboring an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked familial genetic mutation (SOD1(G93A)) in a Sprague-Dawley rat results in ALS-like motor neuron disease. Motor neuron disease in these rats depended on high levels of mutant SOD1 expression, increasing from 8-fold over endogenous(More)