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We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact(More)
Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like(More)
Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning(More)
—The PERCS system was designed by IBM in response to a DARPA challenge that called for a high-productivity high-performance computing system. A major innovation in the PERCS design is the network that is built using Hub chips that are integrated into the compute nodes. Each Hub chip is about 580 mm 2 in size, has over 3700 signal I/Os, and is packaged in a(More)
Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after(More)
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) is a promising memory technology, which has fast read access, high density, and non-volatility. Using 3D heterogeneous integrations, it becomes feasible and cost-efficient to stack MRAM atop conventional chip multiprocessors (CMPs). However, one disadvantage of MRAM is its long write latency and its high write energy. In(More)
Caching techniques have been an efficient mechanism for mitigating the effects of the processor-memory speed gap. Traditional multi-level SRAM-based cache hierarchies, especially in the context of chip multiprocessors (CMPs), present many challenges in area requirements, core-to-cache balance, power consumption, and design complexity. New advancements in(More)
Given a complex matrix H, we consider the decomposition H = QRP * , where R is upper triangular and Q and P have orthonormal columns. Special instances of this decomposition include the singular value decomposition (SVD) and the Schur decomposition where R is an upper triangular matrix with the eigenvalues of H on the diagonal. We show that any diagonal for(More)
Previous proposals for power-aware thread-level parallelism on chip multiprocessors (CMPs) mostly focus on multiprogrammed workloads. Nonetheless, parallel computation of a single application is critical in light of the expanding performance demands of important future workloads. This work addresses the problem of dynamically optimizing power consumption of(More)