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One cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is mutation in ubiquitously expressed copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the mechanism of toxicity to motor neurons is unknown. Multiple disease-causing mutants, but not wild-type SOD1, are now demonstrated to be recruited to mitochondria, but only in affected tissues. This is independent of the(More)
Single injections with morphine can induce a state of acute opioid dependence in humans and animals, typically measured as precipitated withdrawal when an antagonist such as naloxone is administered 4-24 h after morphine. Repeated treatment with morphine results in a progressive shift in potency of naloxone to produce such acute withdrawal signs. The(More)
The products of genes that cause cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2, and CCM3) physically interact. CCM1/KRIT1 links this complex to endothelial cell (EC) junctions and maintains junctional integrity in part by inhibiting RhoA. Heart of glass (HEG1), a transmembrane protein, associates with KRIT1. In this paper, we show that the KRIT1 band(More)
Transgenic overexpression of Cu(+2)/Zn(+2) superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) harboring an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked familial genetic mutation (SOD1(G93A)) in a Sprague-Dawley rat results in ALS-like motor neuron disease. Motor neuron disease in these rats depended on high levels of mutant SOD1 expression, increasing from 8-fold over endogenous(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating motor neuron degenerative disease whose etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Most cases of ALS ( approximately 90%) are sporadic (SALS), occurring in the absence of genetic associations. Approximately 20% of familial ALS (FALS) cases are due to known mutations in the copper, zinc superoxide(More)
Activation of spinal astrocytes may contribute to neuropathic pain. Adjacent astrocytes can make direct communication through gap junctions formed by connexin 43 (Cx43) in the central nervous system. Yet, the role of spinal astroglial gap junctions in neuropathic pain is not fully understood. Since Cx43 is the connexin isoform expressed preferentially in(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are human vascular malformations caused by mutations in three genes of unknown function: KRIT1, CCM2 and PDCD10. Here we show that the heart of glass (HEG1) receptor, which in zebrafish has been linked to ccm gene function, is selectively expressed in endothelial cells. Heg1(-/-) mice showed defective integrity of the(More)
Prediction of monsoon changes in the coming decades is important for infrastructure planning and sustainable economic development. The decadal prediction involves both natural decadal variability and anthropogenic forcing. Hitherto, the causes of the decadal variability of Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) are largely unknown because the monsoons(More)
Ear row number (ERN) is not only a key trait involved in maize (Zea mays L.) evolution but also an important component directly related to grain yield. In this report, 325 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F6:7) derived from a cross between B73 with 16 rows and SICAU1212 with four rows (two-ranked with two rows per rank) were utilized to detect quantitative(More)
OBJECTIVES Load carrying tasks are recognized as one of the primary occupational factors leading to slip and fall injuries. Nevertheless, the mechanisms associated with load carrying and walking stability remain illusive. The objective of the current study was to apply local dynamic stability measure in walking while carrying a load, and to investigate the(More)