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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP.RhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase,(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a subset of bone marrow cells that are capable of self-renewal and of forming all types of blood cells (multi-potential). However, the HSC 'niche'--the in vivo regulatory microenvironment where HSCs reside--and the mechanisms involved in controlling the number of adult HSCs remain largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic(More)
The osteocyte, a terminally differentiated cell comprising 90%-95% of all bone cells, may have multiple functions, including acting as a mechanosensor in bone (re)modeling. Dentin matrix protein 1 (encoded by DMP1) is highly expressed in osteocytes and, when deleted in mice, results in a hypomineralized bone phenotype. We investigated the potential for this(More)
The functions of synapsins were examined by characterizing the phenotype of mice in which all three synapsin genes were knocked out. Although these triple knock-out mice were viable and had normal brain anatomy, they exhibited a number of behavioral defects. Synaptic transmission was altered in cultured neurons from the hippocampus of knock-out mice. At(More)
Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first(More)
The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) has been implicated in embryonic development, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, and inflammation, but its receptors remain unidentified. We report that PGRN bound directly to tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and disturbed the TNFα-TNFR interaction. PGRN-deficient mice were susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis,(More)
Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are important DNA methyltransferases that are expressed in postmitotic neurons, but their function in the CNS is unclear. We generated conditional mutant mice that lack Dnmt1, Dnmt3a or both exclusively in forebrain excitatory neurons and found that only double knockout (DKO) mice showed abnormal long-term plasticity in the hippocampal CA1(More)
Previous voltage-clamp studies have suggested that the delayed rectifier current (IK) is small or absent in the human ventricle and, when present, consists only of the rapid component (IKr); however, molecular studies suggest the presence of functionally important IK in the human heart, specific IKr blockers are known to delay ventricular repolarization and(More)
It is clear from several studies that myosin phosphatase (MP) can be inhibited via a pathway that involves RhoA. However, the mechanism of inhibition is not established. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that Rho-kinase (Rho-associated kinase) via phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) inhibited MP activity(More)