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OBJECTIVE To examine the role of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the apoptosis of neuronal cells. METHODS Neuronal cells (primary rat cerebral cortical neurons and PC12 cells) were incubated with or without Cd post-pretreatment with rapamycin (Rap) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis(More)
Recent studies have reported that mitochondria serve as direct targets for cadmium- (Cd-) induced neuronal toxicity, which can be attenuated by autophagy. The molecular mechanisms' underlying Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy in neurons are not known. In this study, we studied the upstream signaling pathways induced by Cd-mediated(More)
Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate(More)
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in several food commodities worldwide. ZEA causes reproductive disorders, genotoxicity, and testicular toxicity in animals. However, little is known about the functions of apoptosis and autophagy after exposure to ZEA in Leydig cells. This study investigated the effects of ZEA on rat Leydig(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal used in industry and is associated with adverse effects on human health following long- or short-term environmental exposure. Although Cd is known to induce apoptosis in many human organ systems, the mechanism that underlies its toxicity in primary osteoblasts (OBs) is not yet established. In the present study, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the cytotoxic mechanism of cadmium (Cd) on cerebral cortical neurons. METHODS The primary cultures of rat cerebral cortical neurons were treated with different concentrations of cadmium acetate (0, 5, 10, and 20 micromol/L), and then the cell viability, apoptosis, ultrastructure, intracellular [Ca2+], and reactive oxygen species(More)
To investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and downstream events in cadmium (Cd)-induced neuronal apoptosis executed via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, this study used the PC-12 cell line as a neuronal model. The result showed that Cd significantly decreased cell viability and the Bcl-2 / Bax ratio and increased the percentage(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd induces neuronal apoptosis partially by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism of MAPK involving the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in neurons remains unclear. In(More)
Exposure to cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs); however, little information is available regarding the specific mechanisms of Cd-induced primary rat OB apoptosis. In this study, Cd reduced cell viability, damaged cell membranes and induced apoptosis in OBs. We observed decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, ultrastructure(More)