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In diverse eukaryotic organisms, Dicer-processed, virus-derived small interfering RNAs direct antiviral immunity by RNA silencing or RNA interference. Here we show that in addition to core dicing and slicing components of RNAi, the RNAi-mediated viral immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana requires host RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RDR) 1 or RDR6 to produce viral(More)
Using recent advances in the econometrics literature, we disentangle from high frequency observations on the transaction prices of a large sample of NYSE stocks a fundamental component and a microstructure noise component. We then relate these statistical measurements of market microstructure noise to observable characteristics of the underlying stocks and,(More)
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of 10 genomic segments (S1–S10) from an isolate of rice black-streaked dwarf virus causing rough dwarf disease on maize (RBSDV-Hbm) in China were determined, a total of 29,142 base pairs (bp). Each segment possessed the genus-specific termini with conserved nucleotide sequences of (+) 5′-AAGUUUUU ...... CAGCUNNNGUC-3′ and a(More)
Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant-pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate(More)
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, can infect several graminaceous plant species including rice, maize and wheat, and is transmitted by planthoppers. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, functions of the nonstructural protein P6 are still largely unknown. In the(More)
The full-length sequence of a satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of Beet black scorch virus isolate X (BBSV-X) was determined. This agent is 615 nucleotides long and lacks extensive sequence homology with its helper virus or with other reported viruses. Purified virus particles contained abundant single-stranded plus-sense monomers and smaller amounts of dimers.(More)
Wheat yellow mosaic disease, which is caused by wheat yellow mosaic bymovirus (WYMV) and transmitted by soil-borne fungus, results in severe damage on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China. For development of resistant cultivars to reduce wheat yield losses due to wheat yellow mosaic disease, resistance test and genetic analysis indicated that a(More)
The genomic RNA sequences of two genotypes of a brassica-infecting polerovirus from China were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to but significantly different from turnip yellows virus (TuYV). This virus and other poleroviruses, including TuYV, had less than 90% amino acid sequence identity in all gene products(More)
A survey detected Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) infection in six Chinese sugar-beet-growing regions. To study the diversity of virus isolates among the regions, nucleotide sequences of four proteins, namely CP, p25, p31, and p26, were determined and the amino acid sequences thus deduced were analyzed using sequence alignments and the phylogenetic(More)