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In diverse eukaryotic organisms, Dicer-processed, virus-derived small interfering RNAs direct antiviral immunity by RNA silencing or RNA interference. Here we show that in addition to core dicing and slicing components of RNAi, the RNAi-mediated viral immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana requires host RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RDR) 1 or RDR6 to produce viral(More)
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various(More)
The full-length sequence of a satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of Beet black scorch virus isolate X (BBSV-X) was determined. This agent is 615 nucleotides long and lacks extensive sequence homology with its helper virus or with other reported viruses. Purified virus particles contained abundant single-stranded plus-sense monomers and smaller amounts of dimers.(More)
Using recent advances in the econometrics literature, we disentangle from high frequency observations on the transaction prices of a large sample of NYSE stocks a fundamental component and a microstructure noise component. We then relate these statistical measurements of market microstructure noise to observable characteristics of the underlying stocks and,(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of 10 genomic segments (S1–S10) from an isolate of rice black-streaked dwarf virus causing rough dwarf disease on maize (RBSDV-Hbm) in China were determined, a total of 29,142 base pairs (bp). Each segment possessed the genus-specific termini with conserved nucleotide sequences of (+) 5′-AAGUUUUU ...... CAGCUNNNGUC-3′ and a(More)
The complete RNA genomes of a Chinese isolate of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV-CHN) and a new polerovirus tentatively referred to as melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) were determined. The entire genome of CABYV-CHN shared 89.0% nucleotide sequence identity with the French CABYV isolate. In contrast, nucleotide sequence identities between(More)
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, can infect several graminaceous plant species including rice, maize and wheat, and is transmitted by planthoppers. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, functions of the nonstructural protein P6 are still largely unknown. In the(More)
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) and Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) have been found to be associated with cucurbit yellowing disease in China. Our report identifies for the first time a third distinct polerovirus, tentatively named Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV), infecting Suakwa vegetable sponge. To better understand the(More)
Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant-pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate(More)