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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a critical regulator of cell proliferation. Because ethanol inhibits cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro, we hypothesize that ethanol-induced inhibition results from differential interference with signal transduction pathways activated by PDGF. Cultured cortical astrocytes were used to examine the effects of(More)
Ethanol exposure during development is teratogenic. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly susceptible to ethanol toxicity. In fact, heavy gestational ethanol consumption is one of the leading known causes of mental retardation in the Western world. Ethanol exposure disrupts the proliferation of glia and neuronal precursors in the developing CNS.(More)
The neuroprotective properties of bis(7)-tacrine, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity were investigated in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Exposure of CGNs to 75 mum glutamate resulted in neuronal apoptosis as demonstrated by Hoechst staining, TUNEL, and DNA fragmentation assays. The(More)
Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA(More)
In vivo studies show (a) that early exposure to ethanol depletes neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and (b) that a primary target of ethanol in the developing nervous system is proliferating neuronal precursors. We used a neuronal cell line (B 104 neuroblastoma cells) as an in vitro model for the effects of ethanol on the proliferation of neuronal(More)
The regulation of alpha-, beta-, (BACE-1), and gamma-secretase activities to alter beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation is considered to be one of the most promising disease-modifying therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the effect and mechanisms of bis(7)-tacrine (a promising anti-Alzheimer's dimer) on Abeta generation were investigated.(More)
Early ethanol exposure depletes neurons in the developing nervous system, however the effects on neuronal precursors are not homogeneous. Some cells are more susceptible to ethanol toxicity than others. Growth factors are important mitogens for neuronal precursors. We tested the hypothesis that the differential sensitivity of neuronal precursors to ethanol(More)
The expression and activity of factors influencing early neuronal development are altered by ethanol. Such factors include growth factors, for example, platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (for cell proliferation), and cell adhesion molecules (for neuronal migration). One agent, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), may(More)
The excessive activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been proposed to be involved in the neuropathology of various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, NO was found to mediate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultured neurons. Compared with the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor,(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess two unique characteristics: self-renewal and pluripotency. In this study, roles of voltage-gated potassium channels (K(v)) in maintaining mouse (m) ESC characteristics were investigated. Tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), a K(v) blocker, attenuated cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Possible reasons for(More)