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CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals,(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations using a combined QM/MM potential have been performed to study the catalytic mechanism of human cathepsin K, a member of the papain family of cysteine proteases. We have determined the two-dimensional free energy surfaces of both acylation and deacylation steps to characterize the reaction mechanism. These free energy profiles(More)
Advances in transition state theory and computer simulations are providing new insights into the sources of enzyme catalysis. Both lowering of the activation free energy and changes in the generalized transmission coefficient (recrossing of the transition state, tunneling, and nonequilibrium contributions) can play a role. A framework for understanding(More)
This review discusses methods for the incorporation of quantum mechanical effects into enzyme kinetics simulations in which the enzyme is an explicit part of the model. We emphasize three aspects: (a) use of quantum mechanical electronic structure methods such as molecular orbital theory and density functional theory, usually in conjunction with molecular(More)
We have applied molecular dynamics umbrella-sampling simulation and ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (EA-VTST/MT) to calculate the reaction rate of xylose-to- xylulose isomerization catalyzed by xylose isomerase in the presence of two Mg2+ ions. The calculations include determination of the free energy of(More)
Combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations have been carried out to investigate the origin of the carbon acidity enhancement in the alanine racemization reaction catalyzed by alanine racemase (AlaR). The present study shows that the enhancement of carbon acidity of alpha-amino acids by the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) with an(More)
The H/D primary kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) is calculated as a function of temperature employing ensemble-averaged variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling. The calculated KIEs display only a small temperature dependence over the(More)
A previous article proposed an electronic structure-based polarizable potential, called the explicit polarization (X-POL) potential, to treat many-body polarization and charge delocalization effects in polypeptides. Here, we present a variational version of the X-POL potential, in which the wave function of the entire molecular system is variationally(More)