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New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute(More)
CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals,(More)
This review discusses methods for the incorporation of quantum mechanical effects into enzyme kinetics simulations in which the enzyme is an explicit part of the model. We emphasize three aspects: (a) use of quantum mechanical electronic structure methods such as molecular orbital theory and density functional theory, usually in conjunction with molecular(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations using a combined QM/MM potential have been performed to study the catalytic mechanism of human cathepsin K, a member of the papain family of cysteine proteases. We have determined the two-dimensional free energy surfaces of both acylation and deacylation steps to characterize the reaction mechanism. These free energy profiles(More)
Advances in transition state theory and computer simulations are providing new insights into the sources of enzyme catalysis. Both lowering of the activation free energy and changes in the generalized transmission coefficient (recrossing of the transition state, tunneling, and nonequilibrium contributions) can play a role. A framework for understanding(More)
Combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations have been carried out to investigate the origin of the carbon acidity enhancement in the alanine racemization reaction catalyzed by alanine racemase (AlaR). The present study shows that the enhancement of carbon acidity of alpha-amino acids by the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) with an(More)
and valence bond method, solvent effects on S N 2 reaction, and Monte Carlo simulations of chemical reaction in solution. Abstract: A mixed molecular orbital and valence bond (MOVB) method is described in combined ab initio QM/MM simulations of the S N 2 reaction of Cl-+ CH 3 Cl _ ClCH 3 + Cl-in water. The method is based on the construction of individual(More)
We have applied molecular dynamics umbrella-sampling simulation and ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (EA-VTST/MT) to calculate the reaction rate of xylose-to- xylulose isomerization catalyzed by xylose isomerase in the presence of two Mg2+ ions. The calculations include determination of the free energy of(More)
The H/D primary kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) is calculated as a function of temperature employing ensemble-averaged variational transition-state theory with multidimensional tunneling. The calculated KIEs display only a small temperature dependence over the(More)