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New protein parameters are reported for the all-atom empirical energy function in the CHARMM program. The parameter evaluation was based on a self-consistent approach designed to achieve a balance between the internal (bonding) and interaction (nonbonding) terms of the force field and among the solvent-solvent, solvent-solute, and solute-solute(More)
CHARMM (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) is a highly versatile and widely used molecular simulation program. It has been developed over the last three decades with a primary focus on molecules of biological interest, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule ligands, as they occur in solution, crystals,(More)
We used Fisher 344/Brown Norway hybrid rats (F344/BNF1) to determine whether previously reported decreases in brain synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) Ca2+-ATPase activity in inbred F344 rats also occurred in the hybrids. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) activity in SPMs from F344/BNF1 rat brains showed a progressive age-dependent decrease in Vmax from 60.9(More)
We have examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) and fatty acid acyl chain dynamics in synaptosomal membranes isolated from aged rat (Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrids) brains, correlating these results with measurements of enzymatic activity of the synaptic plasma membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase (PMCA). Calcium-dependent ATPase activity in these membranes exhibits(More)
This review discusses methods for the incorporation of quantum mechanical effects into enzyme kinetics simulations in which the enzyme is an explicit part of the model. We emphasize three aspects: (a) use of quantum mechanical electronic structure methods such as molecular orbital theory and density functional theory, usually in conjunction with molecular(More)
Molecular dynamics simulations using a combined QM/MM potential have been performed to study the catalytic mechanism of human cathepsin K, a member of the papain family of cysteine proteases. We have determined the two-dimensional free energy surfaces of both acylation and deacylation steps to characterize the reaction mechanism. These free energy profiles(More)
Advances in transition state theory and computer simulations are providing new insights into the sources of enzyme catalysis. Both lowering of the activation free energy and changes in the generalized transmission coefficient (recrossing of the transition state, tunneling, and nonequilibrium contributions) can play a role. A framework for understanding(More)
Electrostatic interactions between charges on ligands and charges on proteins that are remote from the binding interface can influence the free energy of binding (delta Gb). The binding affinities between charged ligands and the members of a charge ladder of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CAII) constructed by random acetylation of the amino groups on its(More)
A molecular dynamics simulation method is used to determine the contributions of individual amino acid residues and solvent molecules to free energy changes in proteins. Its application to the hemoglobin interface mutant Asp G1(99) beta----Ala shows that some of the contributions to the difference in the free energy of cooperativity are as large as 60(More)