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For xylooligosaccharide (XO) production, endo-xylanase from Thermobifida fusca was modified by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling. The G4SM1 mutant (S62T, S144C, N198D, and A217V) showed the most improved hydrolytic activity and was two copies expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of GAP promoter. The maximum xylanase activity in culture(More)
Treponema saccharophilum is a pectinolytic bacterium isolated from the bovine rumen. The abundance of this bacterium has not been well determined, reflecting the lack of a reliable and accurate detection method. To develop a rapid method for monitoring T. saccharophilum, we performed pyrosequencing of genomic DNA isolated from rumen microbiota to explore(More)
Consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can mitigate the progression of diseases in which oxidative stress represents a common underlying biochemical process. Nrf2-regulated gene expression regulates detoxification of reactive oxygen species. EPA and DHA were subjected to an in vitro free radical oxidation process that(More)
Thirty-six male Hu lambs consuming a rice straw-based diet were used in a 60-day trial to study the associative effects of cornstarch supplementation on intake, digestion, ruminal microbial population and growth performance. All animals were fed rice straw ad libitum together with 160 g/day of rapeseed meal and supplemented with cornstarch at levels of 0(More)
Reducing methane emission from ruminant animals has implications not only for global environmental protection but also for efficient animal production. Tea saponins (TS) extracted from seeds, leaves or roots of tea plant are pentacyclic triterpenes. They have a lasting antiprotozoal effect, but little effect on the methanogen population in sheep. There was(More)
The glycosyl hydrolase family 11, which is responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, was identified in the open reading frame (ORF) 6 of a xylanase positive clone from a fosmid library of rumen microbiota of Hu sheep. A BLASTP search of GenBank revealed that ORF6 encoded a 355-amino acid putative endoxylanase, having 61% similarity (e(-73)) to(More)
Pectin is a non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) that exists in forages, but it is not clear how pectin exerts its effect on populations of either known microbial species or uncultured ruminal bacteria. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis were used in the present study to investigate the effects of pectin on microbial(More)
OBJECTIVES Hormones and cytokines are known to act as regulatory messengers between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. The innate immune system identifies infectious agents by means of pattern-recognition receptors. These receptors recognize pathogen-specific macromolecules called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Fungal cell wall glucans(More)
Forestomach fermentation in Australian marsupials such as wallabies and kangaroos, though analogous to rumen fermentation, results in lower methane emissions. Insights into hydrogenotrophy in these systems could help in devising strategies to reduce ruminal methanogenesis. Reductive acetogenesis may be a significant hydrogen sink in these systems and(More)
The fundamental understanding of the mechanisms regulating milk protein synthesis is limited. This study aimed to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms of milk production affected by forage quality through studying metabolites from four biofluids (rumen fluid, milk, serum, and urine) collected from 16 lactating cows fed alfalfa hay (AH, high-quality, n = 8)(More)