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In the process of translation, ribosomes, a type of macromolecules, read the genetic code on a messenger RNA template (mRNA) and assemble amino acids into a polypeptide chain which folds into a functioning protein product. The ribosomes perform discrete directed motion that is well modeled by a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with open(More)
Different codons encoding the same amino acid are not used equally in protein-coding sequences. In bacteria, there is a bias towards codons with high translation rates. This bias is most pronounced in highly expressed proteins, but a recent study of synthetic GFP-coding sequences did not find a correlation between codon usage and GFP expression, suggesting(More)
BACKGROUND A long-standing conventional view of radiation-induced apoptosis is that increased exposure results in augmented apoptosis in a biological system, with a threshold below which radiation doses do not cause any significant increase in cell death. The consequences of this belief impact the extent to which malignant diseases and non-malignant(More)
We introduce a class of distance-dependent interactions in an accelerated exclusion process inspired by the observation of transcribing RNA polymerase speeding up when "pushed" by a trailing one. On a ring, the accelerated exclusion process steady state displays a discontinuous transition, from being homogeneous (with augmented currents) to phase(More)
The mechanical properties of cytoskeletal networks are intimately involved in determining how forces and cellular processes are generated, directed, and transmitted in living cells. However, determining the mechanical properties of subcellular molecular complexes in vivo has proven to be difficult. Here, we combine in vivo measurements by optical(More)
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