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Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the(More)
The performance of the modified unscented Kalman-Bucy filter (UKBF) for the nonlinear stochastic continuous-time system is investigated. The error behavior of the UKBF is analyzed. It is proved that the estimation error remains bounded if the system satisfies a detectability condition and both the initial estimation error and the disturbing noise terms are(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Most surgeons suggest the use of fecal diversion in patients undergoing low anterior resections of rectal tumors at high risk for anastomotic leakage. We describe an exploratory study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new diversion method called a spontaneously closing cannula ileostomy, which was designed to protect rectal(More)
The unscented Kalman-Bucy filter (UKBF) is developed to nonlinear continuous-time systems with multiple delayed measurements. An explicit and simpler solution to the unscented Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is presented for such systems. The approach applied is the reorganized innovation analysis. The obtained UKBF is given in terms of Riccati differential(More)
The two-stage Unscented Kalman Filter (TUKF) is proposed to consider the nonlinear system in the presence of unknown random bias in a number of practical situations. The adaptive fading UKF is designed by using the forgetting factor to compensate the effects of incomplete information. The TUKF to estimate unknown random bias is designed by using the(More)
The performance of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) for a class of general nonlinear stochastic discretetime systems is investigated in this paper. It is proved that the estimation error of the UKF remains bounded provided a under certain conditions are satisfied. It is further shown that the estimation error remains bounded provided the system satisfies(More)
The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are developed to extended target tracking problem for high resolution sensors. The nonlinear Kalman filters are based on an ellipsoidal model, which is proposed to exploit sensor measurement of target extent. The ellipsoidal model can provide extra information to enhance tracking accuracy,(More)
BACKGROUND This study was designed to compare the long-term surgical outcomes of patients with mid and low rectal cancer after open or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). METHODS A case-matched controlled prospective analysis of 116 patients who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) for stage I to III mid and low rectal cancer from(More)