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Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the(More)
—The two-stage Unscented Kalman Filter (TUKF) is proposed to consider the nonlinear system in the presence of unknown random bias in a number of practical situations. The adaptive fading UKF is designed by using the forgetting factor to compensate the effects of incomplete information. The TUKF to estimate unknown random bias is designed by using the(More)
BACKGROUND This study was designed to compare the long-term surgical outcomes of patients with mid and low rectal cancer after open or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). METHODS A case-matched controlled prospective analysis of 116 patients who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) for stage I to III mid and low rectal cancer from(More)
—This paper introduces an extended environment for the unscented Kalman filtering that considers also the presence of additive noise on input observations in order to solve the problem of optimal estimation of noise-corrupted input and output sequences. This environment includes as sub-cases both errors-in-variables filtering and unscented Kalman filtering.(More)
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