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Chronic use of morphine is accompanied by the development of morphine tolerance, which is one of the major problems associated with opiate treatment. Experimental evidence indicates that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in development of morphine tolerance. Therefore, we investigated the influence of repeated intrathecal injection of a MC4R(More)
The central actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the blood ionized calcium level in anesthetized rats and the neuronal activity of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) in vitro were investigated. An intracerebroventricular injection of PTH (0.01, 0.1, and 1 microgram) prevented urethan-induced hypocalcemia in a dose-dependent manner,(More)
The effects of hypothalamic lesions on stress-induced hypocalcemia, gastric damage, and swim test-evoked behavior were examined in rats. Bilateral lesions of the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus (VMH) eliminated water-restraint stress-induced hypocalcemia and attenuated any gastric damage compared with those in the sham-operated rats. In contrast,(More)
Our previous study revealed that the gastric vagus nerve plays an etiologic role in immobilization (IMB) stress-induced hypocalcemia. The purpose of the present study is to identify exactly what parts of the stomach are involved in the development of IBM-induced hypocalcemia and to determine whether or not gastric acid secretion is involved. A total(More)
The effects of water-restraint stress on blood calcium levels and gastric pathology and their behavioral relevance were examined in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats. The stress induced more severe hypocalcemia (0.32 mM decrease) and gastric lesions (34.6 mm in mean length) in WKY rats than in Wistar rats (0.19 mM and 17.7 mm, respectively). The magnitude(More)
The involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system in the etiology of stress-induced hypocalcemia was investigated in the rat. Atropine methyl bromide (0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg ip) given 20 min before immobilization (IMB) was observed to suppress the induction of hypocalcemia in a dose-dependent manner. A vagotomy of the bilateral cervical trunks also abolished(More)
To elucidate hypothalamic involvement in blood calcium homeostasis, the effects of unilateral electrical stimulation (0.1 mA, 0.5 ms, 30 Hz, 60 min) of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) on the blood concentration of ionized calcium were examined in the anesthetized(More)
Numerous animal studies on the correlation between stress and immunity have been performed but few such studies have been made concerning the relationship between various kinds of stress-related emotional behavior and immunological changes. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in cats elicits various emotional behaviors such as restlessness, defensive(More)
Hypothalamic mechanisms of blood calcium homeostasis and their functional heterogeneity were investigated in rats. Electrical and chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) induced hypocalcemia. The hypocalcemic effect of PVN stimulation was suppressed(More)