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Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better(More)
Screen-printing provides an economically attractive means for making Ag electrical contacts to Si solar cells, but the use of Ag substantiates a significant manufacturing cost, and the glass frit used in the paste to enable contact formation contains Pb. To achieve optimal electrical performance and to develop pastes with alternative, abundant and non-toxic(More)
The increasing integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) calls for new planning and operational tools. However, such tools depend on system topology and line parameters, which may be missing or inaccurate in distribution grids. With abundant data, one idea is to use linear regression to find line parameters, based on which topology can be(More)
—The increasing integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) calls for new monitoring and operational planning tools to ensure stability and sustainability in distribution grids. One idea is to use existing monitoring tools in transmission grids and some primary distribution grids. However, they usually depend on the knowledge of the system model,(More)
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