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Respiration of fine roots (R fr) plays a major role in belowground carbon cycles, but the relationships between R fr and biotic and abiotic factors during plant dormancy remain unclear. We used a standard chamber equipped with an infrared gas analyzer and configured as an open system to measure R fr of intact roots (<2 mm) of Caragana korshinskii in situ in(More)
The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in(More)
BACKGROUND Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. METHODS A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations(More)
We present a system for the interactive simulation of ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks using a Microsoft Kinect®. The system performs motion tracking of both the ultrasound probe and the nerve block needle. Software generates synthetic ultrasound images from previously captured ultrasound images. Details of the software elements in the system are(More)
It is generally considered that desert ecosystems release CO2 to the atmosphere, but recent studies in drylands have shown that the soil can absorb CO2 abiotically. However, the mechanisms and exact location of abiotic carbon absorption remain unclear. Here, we used soil sterilization, (13)CO2 addition, and detection methods to trace (13)C in the soil of(More)
Fine root (<2 mm) respiration (R fr) may play an important role in carbon cycles in drylands; thus R fr in desert ecosystems may have important implications for belowground processes and global carbon cycles. This study aimed to (1) investigate the diel and seasonal changes in R fr of a shrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in situ during the growing season and(More)
BACKGROUND Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is effective in reducing stroke risk in selected patient groups. The ideal anesthetic technique remains controversial in light of literature between general anesthesia (GA) and regional anesthesia (RA) for CEA. METHODS We studied the NSQIP data from 2005 to 2012. There were 32,718 patients receiving general(More)
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