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Transition metal oxides have attracted great interest as alternative anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Among them, ruthenium dioxide is considered to be a prototype material that reacts with the Li ions in the conversion type. In situ transmission electron microscopy reveals a two-step process during the initial lithiation of the RuO2(More)
The strength-ductility trade-off has been a long-standing dilemma in materials science. This has limited the potential of many structural materials, steels in particular. Here we report a way of enhancing the strength of twinning-induced plasticity steel at no ductility trade-off. After applying torsion to cylindrical twinning-induced plasticity steel(More)
The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in(More)
Electrical failure studies on semiconductor oxide nanowires (NWs) were performed in situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A high driven current leads to a sudden fracture of the SnO(2) NW and creates ultra-sharp and high aspect ratio tips at the broken ends, which provides a simple and reliable way for in situ nanoprobe fabrication. As a(More)
Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially(More)
Nanostructured fluorine-doped α-Fe2O3 nanorods were synthesized based on a one-step low temperature hydrothermal method. The XPS results verified that fluorine has been successfully incorporated into the hematite lattice. The delivered lithium capacity was effectively improved owing to the fluorine doping comparing with the pristine α-Fe2O3. The increase in(More)
Respiration of fine roots (R fr) plays a major role in belowground carbon cycles, but the relationships between R fr and biotic and abiotic factors during plant dormancy remain unclear. We used a standard chamber equipped with an infrared gas analyzer and configured as an open system to measure R fr of intact roots (<2 mm) of Caragana korshinskii in situ in(More)
The capability of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to coat conformally complex 3D nanotopography has been examined by depositing amorphous, polycrystalline, and single-crystal TiO(2) films over SnO(2) nanowires (NWs). Structural characterizations reveal a strong correlation between the surface morphology and the microstructures of ALD films. Conformal growth(More)
Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during(More)
In arid and semiarid areas, the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) have received considerable attention. In these areas, in fact, soil inorganic carbon (SIC), rather than SOC, is the dominant form of carbon, with a reservoir approximately 2-10 times larger than that of SOC. A subtle fluctuation of SIC pool can strongly alter the regional(More)