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17β-Estradiol (E2) has been shown to protect against ischemic brain injury, yet its targets and the mechanisms are unclear. E2 may exert multiple regulatory actions on astrocytes that may greatly(More)
Protective effects of estrogen against experimental stroke and neuronal ischemic insult are well-documented, but it is not known whether estrogen prevents ischemic injury to brain endothelium, a key(More)
Chemical toxicity testing is fast moving in a direction that relies increasingly on cell-basedin vitroassays anchored on toxicity pathways according to the toxicity testing in the 21st century(More)