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Distinctive properties of stem cells are not autonomously achieved, and recent evidence points to a level of external control from the microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that self-renewal and pluripotent properties of human embryonic stem (ES) cells depend on a dynamic interplay between human ES cells and autologously derived human ES cell(More)
The intracellular part of the Rel signal transduction pathway in Drosophila is encoded by Toll, tube, pelle, dorsal, and cactus, and it functions to form the dorsal-ventral axis in the Drosophila embryo. Upon activation of the transmembrane receptor Toll, Dorsal dissociates from its cytoplasmic inhibitor Cactus and enters the nucleus. Tube and Pelle are(More)
Some group II introns are mobile elements as well as catalytic RNAs. Introns aI1 and aI2 found in the gene COX1 in yeast mitochondria encode reverse transcriptases which promote site-specific insertion of the intron into intronless alleles ('homing'). For aI2 this predominantly occurs by reverse transcription of unspliced precursor RNA at a break in(More)
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