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The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway plays a central role in plant defense responses against insects. Some phloem-feeding insects also induce the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, thereby suppressing the plant's JA response. These phenomena have been well studied in dicotyledonous plants, but little is known about them in monocotyledons. We cloned a(More)
We compared the volatiles of JA-treated plants of six rice varieties and then determined, in the laboratory and field, if they differed in attractiveness to Anagrus nilaparavate Pand et Wang, an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers. Analyses of volatiles revealed significant differences among varieties, both in total quantity and quality of the blends(More)
Ceramidases catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramides to generate sphingosine (SPH) and fatty acids, and ceramide metabolism is implicated in various biological responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the cloning, biochemical characterization, and functional analysis of a Drosophila alkaline ceramidase (Dacer). Dacer, a membrane-bound protein of 284(More)
Oxylipins produced by the 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) have been reported to play an important role in plant defense responses to herbivores. Yet, the role of oxylipins produced by the 9-LOX pathway in this process remains largely unknown. Here we cloned a gene encoding a chloroplast-localized 9-LOX, Osr9-LOX1, from rice. Transcriptional analysis revealed that(More)
The spread of invasive species is a complex ecological process that is affected by both the biology of the species and the spatial structure of a landscape. The rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel), a notorious crop pest found in many parts of the world, is one of the most devastating invasive species in China, and has caused enormous(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) are potential alternatives for B. thuringiensis endotoxins that are currently utilized in commercial transgenic insect-resistant crops. Screening a large number of B. thuringiensis isolates resulted in the cloning of vip3Ac1. Vip3Ac1 showed high insecticidal activity against the fall armyworm(More)
Plant transgenic technology has been widely utilized for engineering crops for trait improvements and for production of high value proteins such as pharmaceuticals. However, the unintended spreading of commercial transgenic crops by pollination and seed dispersal is a major concern for environmental and food safety. Simple and reliable containment(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to(More)
How rice defends itself against pathogen infection is well documented, but little is known about how it defends itself against herbivore attack. We measured changes in the transcriptome and chemical profile of rice when the plant is infested by the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. Infestation by SSBs resulted in changes in the expression levels(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have received considerable attention in insects for their roles in insecticide resistance. Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is a serious rice pest. L. striatellus outbreaks occur frequently throughout eastern Asia. A key problem in controlling this pest is its rapid adaptation to numerous insecticides. In this(More)