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The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to(More)
Evolutionary mechanisms of origins of new gene function have been a subject of long-standing debate. Here we report a convincing case in which positive Darwinian selection operated at the molecular level during the evolution of novel function by gene duplication. The genes for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in(More)
Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase(More)
Synaptotagmins (Syts) are brain-specific Ca2+/phospholipid-binding proteins. In hippocampal synapses, Syt I is essential for fast Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis but not for Ca(2+)-independent exocytosis. In vertebrates and invertebrates, Syt may therefore participate in Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic membrane fusion, either by serving as the Ca2+(More)
Adaptive evolution at the molecular level can be studied by detecting convergent and parallel evolution at the amino acid sequence level. For a set of homologous protein sequences, the ancestral amino acids at all interior nodes of the phylogenetic tree of the proteins can be statistically inferred. The amino acid sites that have experienced convergent or(More)
Positive Darwinian selection at the molecular level is often studied by comparing the number of synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (d,) and the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) between homologous gene sequences , and a t-test with an infinite number of degrees of freedom is usually used for determining(More)
In nerve terminals, Ca(2+)-stimulated synaptic vesicle exocytosis is rapidly followed by endocytosis. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis requires clathrin-coated pits similar to receptor-mediated endocytosis in fibroblasts. Binding of clathrin AP-2 (adaptor complex) to an unidentified high affinity membrane receptor appears to be necessary for coated pit assembly(More)
Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is important in homeostasis of the immune system: for example, non-functional or autoreactive lymphocytes are eliminated through apoptosis. One member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, Fas (also known as CD95 or Apo-1), can trigger cell death and is essential for lymphocyte homeostasis. FADD/Mort1 is(More)
Indene is oxidized to mixtures of cis- and trans-indandiols and related metabolites by Pseudomonas putida and Rhodococcus sp. isolates. Indene metabolism is consistent with monooxygenase and dioxygenase activity. P. putida resolves enantiomeric mixtures of cis-1,2-indandiol by further selective oxidation of the 1R, 2S-enantiomer yielding high enantiomeric(More)
Whole-cell voltage clamp in the retinal slice and intracellular current clamp in the intact retina were used to study inhibitory interactions in the inner plexiform layer. Picrotoxin or strychnine reduced inhibitory, light-evoked currents in a majority of ganglion cells. However, in nearly a third of the ganglion cells, each of these antagonists enhanced(More)