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The transition from the juvenile to the adult phase of shoot development in plants is accompanied by changes in vegetative morphology and an increase in reproductive potential. Here, we describe the regulatory mechanism of this transition. We show that miR156 is necessary and sufficient for the expression of the juvenile phase, and regulates the timing of(More)
The FT gene integrates several external and endogenous cues controlling flowering, including information on day length. A complex of the mobile FT protein and the bZIP transcription factor FD in turn has a central role in activating genes that execute the switch from vegetative to reproductive development. Here we reveal that microRNA156-targeted SQUAMOSA(More)
Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1(More)
Leaves of flowering plants are produced from the shoot apical meristem at regular intervals, with the time that elapses between the formation of two successive leaf primordia defining the plastochron. We have identified two genetic axes affecting plastochron length in Arabidopsis thaliana. One involves microRNA156 (miR156), which targets a series of(More)
The transition from the juvenile to adult phase in plants is controlled by diverse exogenous and endogenous cues such as age, day length, light, nutrients, and temperature. Previous studies have shown that the gradual decline in microRNA156 (miR156) with age promotes the expression of adult traits. However, how age temporally regulates the abundance of(More)
After germination, plants enter juvenile vegetative phase and then transition to an adult vegetative phase before producing reproductive structures. The character and timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition vary widely between species. In annual plants, this transition occurs soon after germination and usually involves relatively minor morphological(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the current research on microglia as it relates to glaucoma, and summarize the potential microglia-targeted therapies. DATA SOURCES The data were collected from PubMed and Google Scholar databases published in English up to July 2014. Keywords used, both alone and in combination, in the database search included retinal microglia,(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-released excessive glutamate resulted in the activation of glutamate receptors including the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). To investigate the expression and cell distribution of mGluR5 in the rat cortex following TBI, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study the protein and mRNA level of(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present(More)