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Chronic activation of microglia, the macrophages of the CNS, has been shown to enhance neuronal damage because of excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports showed altered microRNA (miRNA) expression in immune-mediated pathologies, thus suggesting that miRNAs modulate(More)
BACKGROUND Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. RESULTS Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA) in a vector at any desired position. With this(More)
Diva ( d eath i nducer binding to v Bcl-2 and A paf-1)/BclB is a Bcl-2 family member, which is known for its function in apoptosis. Diva/BclB has been shown to interact with NDPKB/Nm23H2, which is involved in cellular differentiation. Thus far, there has been no direct evidence of Diva/BclB having a role in differentiation. In the present study, we(More)
BACKGROUND Sodium channel α-subunits in ventricular myocytes (VMs) segregate either to the intercalated disc or to lateral membranes, where they associate with region-specific molecules. OBJECTIVE To determine the functional properties of sodium channels as a function of their location in the cell. METHODS Local sodium currents were recorded from adult(More)
Non-Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS) is often used to construct the free-form boundary representation of three-dimensional objects. In this paper, we propose a method for mechanical analysis for deformable bodies by combining NURBS geometric representation and the Galerkin method. The NURBS surface bounding a 3D body is extended to a trivariate NURBS solid(More)
The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure (BOP) exposure of either 48.9 kPa (7.1 psi) or 77.3 kPa (11.3(More)
Hypoxic injury in the perinatal period results in periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions with axonal damage and oligodendroglial loss. It also alters macrophage function by perpetuating expression of inflammatory mediators. Relevant to this is the preponderance of amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) characterized as active macrophages in the developing PWM.(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public-health problem for which mild TBI (MTBI) makes up majority of the cases. MTBI is a poorly-understood health problem and can persist for years manifesting into neurological and non-neurological problems that can affect functional outcome. Presently, diagnosis of MTBI is based on symptoms reporting with poor(More)
Hypoxia induces microglial activation which causes damage to the developing brain. Microglia derived inflammatory mediators may contribute to this process. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to induce microglial activation and cytokines production in brain injuries; however, its role in hypoxic injury remains uncertain. We investigate here TLR4(More)