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Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate stages of processing in face perception in humans. We found a face-selective MEG response occurring only 100 ms after stimulus onset (the 'M100'), 70 ms earlier than previously reported. Further, the amplitude of this M100 response was correlated with successful categorization of stimuli as faces, but(More)
How do category-selective regions arise in human extrastriate cortex? Visually presented words provide an ideal test of the role of experience: Although individuals have extensive experience with visual words, our species has only been reading for a few thousand years, a period not thought to be long enough for natural selection to produce a genetically(More)
Feature oriented refactoring (FOR) is the process of decomposinga program into features, where a feature is an increment in programfunctionality. We develop a theory of FOR that relates code refac-toring to algebraic factoring. Our theory explains relationshipsbetween features and their implementing modules, and why fea-tures in different programs of a(More)
Rice is not only a major food staple for the world's population but it also is a model species for a major group of flowering plants, the monocotyledonous plants. Draft genomic sequence of two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa spp. japonica and indica ssp. are publicly available. To provide the community with a resource to data-mine the rice genome, we have(More)
BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by(More)
Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. Control of late blight in the United States and other developed countries relies extensively on fungicide application. We previously demonstrated that the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum is highly resistant to all known(More)
fMRI studies have reported three regions in human ventral visual cortex that respond selectively to faces: the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and a face-selective region in the superior temporal sulcus (fSTS). Here, we asked whether these areas respond to two first-order aspects of the face argued to be important for face(More)
We systematically study the design of image recognition CAPTCHAs (IRCs) in this paper. We first review and examine all existing IRCs schemes and evaluate each scheme against the practical requirements in CAPTCHA applications, particularly in large-scale real-life applications such as Gmail and Hotmail. Then we present a security analysis of the(More)
Are the mechanisms for face perception selectively involved in processing faces per se, or do they also participate in the processing of any class of visual stimuli that share the same basic configuration and for which the observer has gained substantial visual expertise? Here we tested the effects of visual expertise on the face-selective "M170", a(More)
Serious concerns on privacy protection in social networks have been raised in recent years; however, research in this area is still in its infancy. The problem is challenging due to the diversity and complexity of graph data, on which an adversary can use many types of background knowledge to conduct an attack. One popular type of attacks as studied by(More)