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Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate stages of processing in face perception in humans. We found a face-selective MEG response occurring only 100 ms after stimulus onset (the 'M100'), 70 ms earlier than previously reported. Further, the amplitude of this M100 response was correlated with successful categorization of stimuli as faces, but(More)
Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. Control of late blight in the United States and other developed countries relies extensively on fungicide application. We previously demonstrated that the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum is highly resistant to all known(More)
How do category-selective regions arise in human extrastriate cortex? Visually presented words provide an ideal test of the role of experience: Although individuals have extensive experience with visual words, our species has only been reading for a few thousand years, a period not thought to be long enough for natural selection to produce a genetically(More)
fMRI studies have reported three regions in human ventral visual cortex that respond selectively to faces: the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and a face-selective region in the superior temporal sulcus (fSTS). Here, we asked whether these areas respond to two first-order aspects of the face argued to be important for face(More)
BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by(More)
We sequenced two maize bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones anchored by the centromere-specific satellite repeat CentC. The two BACs, consisting of approximately 200 kb of cytologically defined centromeric DNA, are composed exclusively of satellite sequences and retrotransposons that can be classified as centromere specific or noncentromere specific(More)
Rice is not only a major food staple for the world's population but it also is a model species for a major group of flowering plants, the monocotyledonous plants. Draft genomic sequence of two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa spp. japonica and indica ssp. are publicly available. To provide the community with a resource to data-mine the rice genome, we have(More)
We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), which is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. The DC3000 genome (6.5 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and two plasmids, which collectively encode 5,763 ORFs. We identified 298 established and putative virulence(More)
Feature oriented refactoring (FOR) is the process of decomposinga program into features, where a feature is an increment in programfunctionality. We develop a theory of FOR that relates code refac-toring to algebraic factoring. Our theory explains relationshipsbetween features and their implementing modules, and why fea-tures in different programs of a(More)
The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of(More)