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Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane, tonoplast, and other endomembranes of plant cells. Previous compositional analyses have focused only on individual sphingolipid classes because of the widely differing polarities of plant sphingolipids. Consequently, the total content of sphingolipid classes in plants has yet to be quantified. In(More)
The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these(More)
BACKGROUND Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones; either low or high intake may lead to thyroid disease. We observed an increase in the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and autoimmune thyroiditis with increasing iodine intake in China in cohorts from three regions with different levels of iodine intake: mildly(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between specific thyroid abnormalities (subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinaemia or elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titres) in women during pregnancy and the subsequent neuropsychological development of their offspring. DESIGN/PATIENTS Serum was collected from 1268 women at 16-20 weeks of gestation and(More)
OBJECTIVES We conducted a randomized controlled trial of the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in children undergoing repair of congenital heart defects. BACKGROUND Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion in distant organs. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with multi-system injury. We(More)
[1] ‘‘Tar balls’’ are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and(More)
Antifungal defensins, MsDef1 and MtDef4, from Medicago spp., inhibit the growth of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. However, molecular mechanisms by which they inhibit the growth of this fungus are not known. We have characterized a functional role of the fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide in regulating sensitivity of(More)
OBJECTIVE Berberine (BBR) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance. We investigated the mechanism of activation of AMPK by BBR and explored whether derivatization of BBR could improve its in vivo efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AMPK phosphorylation was examined in L6(More)
Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) reduces tissue injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in distant organs. We tested the hypothesis that remote IPC (rIPC) modifies inflammatory gene transcription in humans. Using a microarray method, we demonstrated that a simple model of brief forearm ischemia suppresses proinflammatory gene expression in(More)
Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant and the sole commercial source of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA), anticancer compounds. Recently, triterpenoids like ursolic acid and oleanolic acid have also been found in considerable amounts in C. roseus leaf cuticular wax layer. These simple pentacyclic triterpenoids exhibit various(More)