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Xylem development is a process of xylem cell terminal differentiation that includes initial cell division, cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD in plants and apoptosis in animals share many common characteristics. Caspase-3, which displays Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) specificity, is a crucial executioner during(More)
Cambium periodicity is correlated with changes in the cambial cell wall, but the heterogeneity of cell wall structure and composition makes it difficult to give an accurate interpretation, especially for complex secondary vascular tissues. A combination of different methods is necessary to reveal the structure of this complex cell wall. In this study, the(More)
A robust two-way quantum key distribution system based on phase encoding is demonstrated in 50 km and 100 km commercial communication fiber. The system can automatically compensate for birefringence effects and remain stable over 23 h. A low quantum bit error rate and high visibility are obtained. Furthermore, the storage fiber is unnecessary and train of(More)
In this paper, theoretical calculations were conducted to determine the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) based on the effective medium approach using Green's function method. The influences of microstructural features were investigated, including volume fraction, aspect ratio, and the orientation of graphene fillers. Calculated results demonstrated(More)
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