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Halichondrin B is a highly potent anticancer agent originally found in marine sponges. Although scarcity of the natural product has hampered efforts to develop halichondrin B as a new anticancer drug, the existence of a complete synthetic route has allowed synthesis of structurally simpler analogues that retain the remarkable potency of the parent compound.(More)
Reperfusion after global brain ischemia results initially in a widespread suppression of protein synthesis in neurons, which persists in vulnerable neurons, that is caused by the inhibition of translation initiation as a result of the phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). To identify kinases responsible for(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as second messengers in receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The possible role of ROS during Et-1 stimulation in cardiomyocytes was therefore investigated. METHODS Intracellular ROS levels were measured with fluorescence probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate by confocal(More)
Although the physiological role of tissue-specific translational control of gene expression in mammals has long been suspected on the basis of biochemical studies, direct evidence has been lacking. Here, we report on the targeted disruption of the gene encoding the heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase (HRI) in mice. We establish that HRI, which is expressed(More)
Cytoplasmic stresses, including heat shock, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress, cause rapid inhibition of protein synthesis in cells through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) by eIF2alpha kinases. We have investigated the role of heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), a heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase, in stress responses of(More)
Glutamate is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Glutamate released from presynaptic neurons is cleared from the synaptic cleft passively by diffusion and actively by glutamate transporters. In this study, the role of glutamate transporters in sensory processing in the spinal cord has been investigated in behavioral, in vivo and in(More)
A number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, appear to have a multifactorial genetic risk component. Consequently, techniques are needed to facilitate evaluation of complex genetic risk factors in large cohorts. We have designed a prototype assay for genotyping a panel of 35 biallelic sites that represent variation within 15 genes from(More)
Endothelin-1 (Et-1) is a peptide synthesized by endothelial cells (ECs) both in culture and in vivo. Cyclic strain induces gene expression of Et-1, however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Since cyclic strain induces a sustained increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), we hypothesized that the ROS could be a modulator in(More)
The acute effects of thyroid hormones on glucocorticoid secretion were studied. Venous blood samples were collected from male rats after they received intravenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4). Zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells were treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), T3, T4, ACTH plus T3, or ACTH plus T4 at 37 degrees C(More)
Protein synthesis is regulated by the phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) in a variety of cells. At present, there are two distinct mammalian eIF-2 alpha kinases that have been cloned, the double-stranded-RNA-dependent eIF-2 alpha kinase (PKR) and the heme-regulated eIF-2 alpha kinase (HRI). HRI is activated(More)