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After bladder inoculation of mice using the pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli strain DS17, urinary interleukin-1α (IL-1α) peaked at 0.5 h post infection (mean 233 pg/ml), interleukin-6 (IL-6) at 2 h (mean 572 pg/ml), and leukocyturia at 4 h, all three persisting for more than 24 h. In the kidneys IL-1α peaked at 2 h, persisted over 24 h (mean 900 – 1,000(More)
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder of women, characterized by cystic degeneration of the lungs, renal angiomyolipomas (AML), and lymphatic abnormalities. LAM lesions result from the proliferation of benign-appearing, smooth muscle-like LAM cells, which are characterized by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of one of the tuberous sclerosis(More)
We previously reported that expression of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 strongly inhibits the transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor (ER-alpha) in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines but only weakly inhibits ER-alpha activity in cervical cancer cells (S. Fan et al., Science (Wash. DC), 284: 1354-1356, 1999). We now report(More)
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare multisystem disease found primarily in women of childbearing age, is characterized by the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells, LAM cells, that form nodules in the pulmonary interstitium. Proliferation of LAM cells results, in part, from dysfunction in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes TSC1(More)
Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop hamartomas containing biallelic inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Hamartomas overgrow epithelial and mesenchymal cells in TSC skin. The pathogenetic mechanisms for these changes had not been investigated, and the existence or(More)
BACKGROUND Oral mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors have been shown to reduce visceral tumor volume in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the cutaneous response to oral sirolimus in patients with TSC and an indication for systemic treatment, including long-term effects. METHODS A retrospective analysis(More)
Marjorie J. Lindhurst1, Ji-an Wang2, Hadley M. Bloomhardt1, Alison M. Witkowski1, Larry N. Singh1, David P. Bick3, Michael J. Gambello4, Cynthia M. Powell5, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee6, Thomas N. Darling2, and Leslie G. Biesecker1 1National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA 2Department of Dermatology, Uniformed(More)
Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop hamartomatous tumors showing loss of function of the tumor suppressor TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin) and increased angiogenesis, fibrosis, and abundant mononuclear phagocytes. To identify soluble factors with potential roles in TSC tumorigenesis, we screened TSC skin tumor-derived cells for altered(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by the formation of tumors in multiple organs and is caused by germline mutation in one of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. As for other tumor suppressor gene syndromes, the mechanism of somatic second-hit events in TSC tumors is unknown. We grew fibroblast-like cells from 29 TSC skin tumors from(More)
Hamartomas are composed of cells native to an organ but abnormal in number, arrangement or maturity. In the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), hamartomas develop in multiple organs because of mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Here we show that TSC2-null fibroblast-like cells grown from human TSC skin hamartomas induced normal human keratinocytes to form hair(More)