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PURPOSE To evaluate visual blur as a mechanism for modulating eye shape. METHODS Chicks wore a unilateral full goggle or one of several goggles modified with apertures. After 2 weeks, eyes were measured with refractometry, ultrasound, and calipers, and three retinal regions were assayed for dopamine and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid). RESULTS(More)
PURPOSE To learn whether nicotinic cholinergic receptors modulate postnatal eye growth and influence the course of form-deprivation myopia. METHODS One-week-old White Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral goggle to induce form-deprivation myopia. Other chicks were never goggled. Nicotinic antagonist drugs were administered by intravitreal injection, usually(More)
It has been suggested that ambient lighting at night influences eye growth and might play a causal role in human myopia. To test this hypothesis, we reared newly hatched chicks under 12 hr light-dark or light-dim cycles with a light phase intensity of 1500 microW/cm(2) and variable dim phase intensities between 0.01 and 500 microW/cm(2). Other chicks were(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously demonstrated that BEX2 is differentially expressed in breast tumors and has a significant role in promoting cell survival and growth in breast cancer cells. BEX2 expression protects breast cancer cells against mitochondrial apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of BEX2(More)
PURPOSE To learn whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in retinal mechanisms that influence refractive development. METHODS White leghorn chicks, some of which wore a unilateral goggle to induce myopia, received daily intravitreal injections of agonists or antagonists to the major GABA receptor subtypes. Eyes were studied with refractometry,(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that lead (Pb) produces impairments partly through oxidative stress. Though many researchers have investigated protective effect of some antioxidant nutrients against Pb toxicity, little information is available about the effect of antioxidants on Pb-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity. Quercetin, a strong antioxidant and(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and its relation to apolipoprotein E (apoE) epsilon4 allele in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty MCI and 30 controls were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Chinese version (CAMCOG-C), and then insonated in(More)
Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in(More)
Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47–80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15–25 years) Chinese(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to detect and establish the cellular localizations of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in Rhesus monkey retina. METHODS Retinas were dissected from the eyes of monkeys killed after unrelated experiments. RNA was extracted and analyzed by RT-PCR, using primers designed against human sequences of(More)