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We made genome-wide analyses to explore the evolutionary process of the SBP-box gene family. We identified 120 SBP-box genes from nine species representing the main green plant lineages: green alga, moss, lycophyte, gymnosperm and angiosperm. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using the protein sequences of the DNA-binding domain of(More)
The steroid anesthetic alphaxalone and a series of naturally occurring analogs were compared in potency and efficacy with each other and the hypnotic barbiturate pentobarbital for interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors:binding sites in rat brain membranes and functional activity in 36Cl- flux measurements with rat hippocampal slices. The(More)
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to the pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. Plants of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Although immune dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), involvement of T helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory (Treg) cells remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the presence of Th17 and Treg cells in SSc patients and the role of Th17 cells in collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. METHODS We analyzed(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) causes neurotoxic damages to the dopaminergic system in mammals, but whether it exerts toxicity to dopamine cells in culture has not been fully explored. In order to develop an in vitro model of METH-induced dopamine neurotoxicity toward more systemical examination of the mechanism, we investigated METH toxicity in a clonal dopamine(More)
The inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts primarily on receptors that increase chloride permeability in postsynaptic neurons. These receptors are defined by sensitivity to the agonist muscimol and the antagonist bicuculline, and are also subject to indirect allosteric inhibition by picrotoxin-like convulsants and enhancement by the(More)
The Th17 lineage, a lineage of effector CD4 + T cells, is characterized by the production of IL-17. Expansion of Th17 cells has been implicated in a growing list of autoimmune disorders. Our studies, as well as others, have shown that Th17 cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of SLE. Therefore, some investigators advocate that Th17 cells are a(More)
T(H)17 cells have been implicated in a growing list of inflammatory disorders. Antagonism of T(H)17 cells can be used for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Currently, very little is known about the natural compound controlling the differentiation of T(H)17 cells. Here, we showed that Baicalin, a compound isolated from a Chinese herb, inhibited T(H)17(More)
BACKGROUND CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells inhibit autoimmunity and protect against tissue injury. The development of these T(reg) cells is controlled by the regulator protein Foxp3, which can be enhanced by the in vitro activation of Foxp3 in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta. However, little is known about alternative(More)
BACKGROUND Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a distinct group of the GPCR family, which structurally possess a characteristically distinct extracellular domain inclusive of the Venus flytrap module (VFTM). The VFTMs of the class C GPCRs is responsible for ligand recognition and binding, and share sequence similarity with bacterial(More)