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Intracellular Ca(2+) transients are considered a primary signal by which astrocytes interact with neurons and blood vessels. With existing commonly used methods, Ca(2+) has been studied only within astrocyte somata and thick branches, leaving the distal fine branchlets and endfeet that are most proximate to neuronal synapses and blood vessels largely(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin(More)
Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx) 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46(More)
Using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model, we have previously demonstrated that 2-h OGD induces rapid, caveolin-1-mediated dissociation of claudin-5 from the cellular cytoskeletal framework and quick endothelial barrier disruption. In this study, we further investigated the fate of translocated claudin-5 and the mechanisms by which OGD promotes(More)
We previous found the expression level of PTEN was low in the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. To assess the pathogenic contribution of the low expression of PTEN, we determined PTEN-regulating miRNA interference, PTEN promoter methylation and PTEN gene mutation condition in CLL. One hundred and fifty-four previously untreated CLL patients and(More)
Increased expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1) in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has been reported to correlate with progression and prognosis in many cancers. However, rarely have reports sought to determine whether high Gal-1 expression in CAFs in gastric cancer is involved in the tumor process, and the specific mechanism by which it promotes the(More)
In the bulk, block copolymers (BCPs) self assemble into ordered morphologies, having spherical, cylindrical, lamellar, or bicon-tinuous gyroid microdomains, where the molecular weight of the BCP dictates the sizes of the microdomains formed. In thin films, controlling the orientation and lateral ordering of the micro-domains has enabled the use of these(More)
BACKGROUND Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression contributes to cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM) development and progression. Argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein, a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), can directly bind to miRNAs and mediate target messenger RNA(More)
P2X4 receptors are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channels present on the plasma membrane (PM) and also within intracellular compartments such as vesicles, vacuoles, lamellar bodies (LBs), and lysosomes. P2X4 receptors in microglia are up-regulated in epilepsy and in neuropathic pain; that is to say, their total and/or PM expression levels(More)