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The spatiotemporal activities of astrocyte Ca²⁺ signaling in mature neuronal circuits remain unclear. We used genetically encoded Ca²⁺ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Our data revealed numerous localized, spontaneous(More)
Intracellular Ca(2+) transients are considered a primary signal by which astrocytes interact with neurons and blood vessels. With existing commonly used methods, Ca(2+) has been studied only within astrocyte somata and thick branches, leaving the distal fine branchlets and endfeet that are most proximate to neuronal synapses and blood vessels largely(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin(More)
BACKGROUND Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE Most epidemiologic studies have focused on the adverse impact of the metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, information on the relationship between the clustering of metabolic syndrome variables at favorable levels in childhood and the measures of CV risk in adulthood is not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We explored roles for astrocytes, in which mutant huntingtin is expressed in HD patients and mouse models. We found that symptom onset in R6/2 and Q175 HD mouse models was not associated with classical astrogliosis, but(More)
Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx) 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia observed in otherwise healthy individuals. Most lone AF cases are nonfamilial, leading to the assumption that a primary genetic origin is unlikely. In this study, we provide data supporting a novel paradigm that atrial tissue-specific genetic defects may be associated with sporadic(More)
Data on the utility of the waist-to-height ratio in detecting central obesity and related cardiovascular risk among normal weight younger adults are scant. This aspect was examined in 639 normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) black and white adults (75% white and 36% men) 20 to 44 years old. The subjects with a waist-to-height ratio > or =0.5(More)
A new bacterial secondary messenger, bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), is usually synthesized or decomposed by proteins containing GGDEF or glutamate-alanine-leucine (EAL) domain. They often act as cyclase or phosphodiesterase of c-di-GMP and their genes are distributed among almost all bacteria according to known genomic DNA(More)