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Intracellular Ca(2+) transients are considered a primary signal by which astrocytes interact with neurons and blood vessels. With existing commonly used methods, Ca(2+) has been studied only within astrocyte somata and thick branches, leaving the distal fine branchlets and endfeet that are most proximate to neuronal synapses and blood vessels largely(More)
The spatiotemporal activities of astrocyte Ca²⁺ signaling in mature neuronal circuits remain unclear. We used genetically encoded Ca²⁺ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Our data revealed numerous localized, spontaneous(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We explored roles for astrocytes, in which mutant huntingtin is expressed in HD patients and mouse models. We found that symptom onset in R6/2 and Q175 HD mouse models was not associated with classical astrogliosis, but(More)
Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx) 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46(More)
Generating laterally ordered, ultradense, macroscopic arrays of nanoscopic elements will revolutionize the microelectronic and storage industries. We used faceted surfaces of commercially available sapphire wafers to guide the self-assembly of block copolymer microdomains into oriented arrays with quasi-long-range crystalline order over arbitrarily large(More)
Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented opportunity to monitor physical environments via inexpensive wireless embedded devices. Given the sheer amount of sensed data, efficient classification of them becomes a critical task in many sensor network applications. The large scale and the stringent energy constraints of such networks however challenge(More)
Cross-lingual voice transformation is challenging when source language (L1) and target language (L2) are very different in corresponding phonetics and prosodies. We propose a frame mapping based HMM approach to this problem. The source speaker's speech data is first warped in frequency toward the target speaker by mapping corresponding formants of selected(More)