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The normal BBB (blood-brain barrier) consists of a series of structures collectively known as neurovascular units, or NVU, that are composed of endothelial cells and astrocyte endfeet separated by a basal lamina at their interface. The integrity of the BBB and specifically endothelial tight junctions is maintained by interactions between these different(More)
Delivery of therapeutic or diagnostic agents across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate in a mouse model that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can cross the normal BBB when subjected to an external magnetic field. Following a systemic administration, an applied external magnetic field mediates the ability of MNPs(More)
BACKGROUND Little information is available the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in host defenses during human tuberculosis (TB) infection. We investigated the modulating factor(s) affecting NO synthase (iNOS) induction in human macrophages. METHODS Both iNOS mRNA and protein that regulate the growth of mycobacteria were determined using reverase(More)
BACKGROUND CNS injury including stroke, infection, and tumor growth lead to astrogliosis, a process that involves upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astrocytes. However, the kinetics of astrogliosis that is related to these insults (i.e. tumor) is largely unknown. RESULTS Using transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the(More)
House dust mite (HDM) is a primary allergen in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is associated with allergic diseases and innate immunity to infection. The present study examined how HDM affects constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in normal and AR subjects. Total IgE increased in AR subjects when compared to normal subjects, and patients(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive infiltration of brain tumors by microglia and macrophages is a hallmark of tumor progression, and yet the overall tumor microenvironment is characterized by an immunosuppressive phenotype. Here we identify esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (Ecrg4) as a novel thrombin-processed monocyte chemoattractant that recruits myeloid cells,(More)
In humans, esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) is encoded by four exons in the c2orf40 locus of chromosome 2. Translation of ECRG4 messenger ribonucleic acid produces a 148 amino acid-secreted 17 KDa protein that is then processed to 14, ten, eight, six, four, and two KDa peptides, depending on the cell in which the gene is expressed. As(More)
We investigated the effect of asthmatic serum on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis in normal subjects. Eosinophil apoptosis in normal subjects was inhibited by asthmatic serum but not normal serum. In a detailed analysis based on the presence of house dust mite (HDM) IgE, HDM IgE-positive (+) asthmatic serum was more effective for eosinophil apoptosis than(More)
Hydroquinone (HQ) is a major benzene metabolite, which is produced after benzene biotransformation. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of HQ on lymphocytes. HQ significantly induced the apoptosis of lymphocytes isolated from normal peripheral blood in both dose and time dependent courses. Volatile organic compounds such as benzene, phenol,(More)