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This study characterized the upstream signalling molecules involved in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation and determined their effects on differential tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha expression by monocytes/macrophages infected with virulent or avirulent mycobacteria. The avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Ra(More)
Clonorchis sinensis is a biliary tract parasite, which infects over 30 million people in China, Korea and Southeast Asia through the ingestion of undercooked freshwater fish that harbour the infective metacercariae. The genes expressed in C. sinensis adults were identified in order to develop novel drugs, better diagnostics and vaccines for the parasite.(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate assessment of treatment efficacy would facilitate clinical trials of new antituberculosis drugs. We hypothesized that early alterations in peripheral immunity could be measured by gene expression profiling in tuberculosis patients undergoing successful conventional combination treatment. METHODS Ex vivo blood samples from 27 pulmonary(More)
Clonorchis sinensis is a Chinese liver fluke that chronically resides in the biliary tract. The fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) is known to play an important role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids that are obtained by the fluke from the host. Although FABP has stimulated considerable interest as a vaccine target candidate, the(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent in Korea. In this study, we compared the proteins present in culture filtrates from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K, which is the dominant clinical isolate in Korea, with those present in culture filtrates from M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Several differences in expression were(More)
Hydroquinone (HQ) is a benzene metabolite that is involved in hematopoiesis via its accumulation into bone marrow. HQ also acts as a toxic agent that influences various immune responses. Both neutrophils and eosinophils function as important leukocytes in immunological regulation and immune diseases. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of HQ on the(More)
Asthma is a disease marked by chronic lung inflammation and the number of patients suffering from asthma increases annually. Both beta-sitosterol (BS) and beta-sitosterol glucoside exist in a variety of plants and have anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and immunomodulatory activities. However, the precise role of BS and beta-sitosterol glucoside in asthma has not(More)
BACKGROUND The 30-kDa antigen (Ag) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is a strong inducer of innate and adaptive immune responses in human tuberculosis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in inflammatory signaling as well as antimicrobial defense. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we investigated the(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae), known as 'E-Sung-Cho' in Korea, has been traditionally used for the treatment of herpes simplex, chronic sinusitis, and allergy. AIM OF THE STUDY To investigate the inhibitory activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb fractions (HcFs) on the T helper 2 (Th2) immune response, we evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The genetic determinants for developing TB or having recurrent TB are unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between susceptibility to tuberculosis and human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 genes (IL-10). METHODS A case-control study was conducted using two groups of cases--newly(More)